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❶Researchers from the University of Basel found that both dry and chesty coughs take the same amount of time to go regardless of whether a patient takes medication or not. New York Times , p.

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Danielle Cort has been a freelance writer since , specializing in psychology, health, education and parenting. She has published articles in "Family" magazine. Before becoming a freelance writer, Cort worked in the public policy research sector, conducting research, creating surveys and budgets.

She holds a Doctor of Philosophy in social psychology from the University of Massachusetts. Use our citation tool to automatically generate your bibliography for any website. How to Reference a Painting in an Essay. Accessed 14 September Depending on which text editor you're pasting into, you might have to add the italics to the site name. Of those held in swoops by counter- terror police in the year to June, were white — the largest ethnic group — while were recorded as being of Asian ethnic background, Home Officer figures show.

A study found men are less likely to enjoy their jobs than women on average, while working long days and feeling rushed at work have a stronger negative impact on them. The drinks giant is joining Cadbury and Carling, which are already members of a group of seven key sponsors. McDonald's has partnered with associations to sponsor children's football. Prudential's Quality of Life index for England and Wales has crowned West Sussex as the best place to be a pensioner for the second year running.

Hannah-Marie Clayton, 10, of Bournemouth, did not approve of the new Coco Pops slogan 'Loved by kids, approved by mums'. She argued 'dads can make breakfast too' and it changed Kellogg's minds. It was also criticised for delays in giving residents the compensation they are due. Football fans watching the World Cup online this summer through the BBC were forced to endure delays of 30 seconds or more compared to those watching on traditional television. The world heritage site in Oxfordshire was given to the 1st Duke of Marlborough by Queen Anne in , in recognition of victories that established Britain as a world power.

The men told Kremlin-funded state broadcaster Russia Today yesterday they had been on a two-day holiday to Salisbury. But ten glaring flaws blow a huge hole in their version of events.

Such as, why did they stay in East London? Why are there no pictures of the duo actually visiting Salisbury cathedral? And bus tours to Stonehenge were not cancelled on Sunday March 4. Two Russian assassins accused of trying to kill Russian double agent Sergei Skripal by putting deadly nerve agent Novichok on his door-handle were today interviewed on Russian State TV and said they were only tourists not killers.

In the 'absurd' interview the men even admitted they may have ended up at Sergei Skripal's suburban home 'by accident' while looking for the cathedral, which has a ft spire and is 25 minutes in the other direction. The Russian assassins appeared to be regurgitating a script and intent on fixing their 'poker faces', a body language expert told MailOnline today. The burly pair admitted they were in the city on the day Sergei Skripal was poisoned, but insisted they only went to visit its 'famous cathedral' and nearby Stonehenge.

Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov flew from Moscow to Heathrow and took the train to Salisbury where they put deadly nerve agent novichok on Sergei Skripal's door-handle before flying home. A chemical weapons expert who appears on the Russia Today TV news channel has been arrested after officers discovered potentially hazardous materials at his home in Bideford, Devon. The Russian media questioned whether Alexander Petrov and Ruslan Boshirov were gay after they were asked in an interview why they made the trip to Britain together.

Pyotr Verzilov, one of Pussy Riot's founding members, is in a 'grave condition' in a Moscow hospital with doctors allegedly refusing to give details of his condition his family and girlfriend. Hurricane Helene could bring 'extreme weather' to Britain on Tuesday, according to forecasters. The Met Office fears wet and windy weather could be on the horizon.

Although forecasters also believe the start of next week to be uncertain and could instead bring some warm weather to British shores. Today the hurricane is raging off the coast of the United States pictured top left and then by Sunday evening it will start making its way across the Atlantic pictured bottom left. By Tuesday pictured right the remnants of Hurricane Helene can be seen near the south-western tip of the UK. Diane Abbott pictured walked away from a Tube passenger who grilled the Labour MP last week over her comment that Orthodox Jews were targets of hate crime because of the 'costumes' they wear.

Ms Abbott said that charedi Jews in Hackney were 'actually subject to hate crime more than other Jews, because they wear that costume' on Question Time earlier this year. Martin Henton, acting headteacher at Bishop of Hereford's Bluecoat School, has been criticised after an assembly about new uniform included the topic of discussion 'sexual threats' and harassment. More than combinations for the new '68 plates have been forbidden by the DVLA to keep Britain's streets decent.

A man, named locally as Alan Grayson, was found with a stab wound at his Sheffield home today. Neighbours say he lived with Marjorie, 83, and they were 'always just pottering around in their garden. In defiance of pro-choice campaigners, Sajid Javid said creating protest-free areas outside clinics to prevent harassment of patients 'would not be a proportionate response' to heated protests.

Andrew Murray, 60, Jeremy Corbyn's special adviser, who has worked in Parliament for months without a pass, has called for the defeat of Nato and shown solidarity with a Hezbollah terror chief. The final episode of the You, Me and Big C podcast hears Rachael discussing how she learnt to cope with her 'new normal'. Hind, 69, was sentenced to a total of 24 weeks in jail, suspended for 12 months. More than 10 landlords in Canterbury, Kent, have admitted taking on female student tenants offering free rooms in exchange for sexual services.

A student journalist pictured snared the landlords on Craigslist. Sarah Bramley, 29, sent a picture of herself performing a sex act on Michael Lawson, 34, to her former partner David Saunders, 34, who then stabbed Mr Lawson in Darlington.

The naked calendar includes Cambridge University's finest sportsmen and women posing at famous locations across the city, while using strategically placed props to preserve their modesty. Pictured clockwise from top left: This second video shows a vicious confrontation between members of staff and customers, which is thought to have taken place in the McDonald's restaurant on Uxbridge Road in Shepherds Bush, west London on September 1.

The clip was filmed by an unknown bystander and begins with a male employee and customer engaged in a furious brawl, with the worker seemingly held in a headlock. Four of his colleagues desperately struggle to grab the customer as he appears to choke their co-worker.

The Shepherds Bush branch has a reputation as one of the roughest McDonald's in London, but in March this year the branch owner claimed they had refuced anti-social behaviour by playing classical music. The former ice house pictured , located on the shores of Loch Crinan in Scotland, was originally built in and used to store ice essential for keeping salmon fresh for market. The original property has been retained in full but a glass extension dubbed 'the Fox's glacier mint extension' allows for view across the Scottish countryside protected from the elements.

Charlie Chafer, six, has been banned from classes at Drayton Park Primary School in Bletchley, Milton Keynes, after restyling his hair over the summer holidays. His mother, who is now threatening to move him to a different school, claims a teacher put water on his hair to flatten his treasured mohawk down. Relatives of Michael Cash - who was spray-painted in Middlesbrough - say the police have told them a body discovered in a cemetery could be their loved one. Anna Doherty, 19, started to feel unwell five days into an all-inclusive holiday in the resort of Hurghada in March.

The resort is the same as where John and Susan Cooper were staying before they died. Fundraiser Gary Gardner, 56, has been found guilty of two counts of fraud at Leicester Crown Court after pocketing cash collected for the young son of murdered soldier Lee Rigby. Dame Louise Ellman, who has been an MP since , has been criticised by left-wing activists for speaking out on the scandal. A Ryanair flight from London Stansted to Copenhagen with people on board was put in jeopardy after one of the plane's nosewheels fell off during take-off.

The giant fish - weighing around kg - was mistakenly netted off the coast of Devon by fishermen looking for sprats. The men were not able to keep the bluefin tuna due to fishing quotas. Incredible photos from show the extent of the prospering industry at Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, with women gutting and salting huge amounts of fish everyday.

Tom Tugendhat, the high-flying chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee, today insisted the party had to stop 'banging on about Europe' and look to a future led by politicians like himself. Andrei Burnaz told the inquest into the Westminster terror attack how he frantically searched the London bridge for his partner after she was struck by Khalid Masood's car.

The Office for National Statistics said 18 year-olds spend more time glued to their screens on Facebook or other social media sites, or playing computer games. The last time the national target of 85 per cent of patients starting treatment within 62 days of an urgent GP referral in England was hit was in December , according to the NHS figures.

Millie Stipetic, 22, from Darlington, was left fighting for her life in intensive care after being badly beaten and left for dead by her boyfriend Dean Young, It comes a month after Birmingham was taken from G4S. World leaders and international dignitaries gathered to pay their last respects to former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan at his funeral in Ghana today. For small newspapers, a single editor may be responsible for all content areas. At large newspapers, the most senior editor is in overall charge of the publication, while less senior editors may each focus on one subject area, such as local news or sports.

These divisions are called news bureaus or "desks", and each is supervised by a designated editor. Most newspaper editors copy edit the stories for their part of the newspaper, but they may share their workload with proofreaders and fact checkers.

Reporters are journalists who primarily report facts that they have gathered and those who write longer, less news-oriented articles may be called feature writers.

Photographers and graphic artists provide images and illustrations to support articles. Journalists often specialize in a subject area, called a beat , such as sports, religion, or science. Columnists are journalists who write regular articles recounting their personal opinions and experiences. Printers and press operators physically print the newspaper. Printing is outsourced by many newspapers, partly because of the cost of an offset web press the most common kind of press used to print newspapers and also because a small newspaper's print run might require less than an hour of operation, meaning that if the newspaper had its own press it would sit idle most of the time.

If the newspaper offers information online, webmasters and web designers may be employed to upload stories to the newspaper's website.

The staff of the circulation department liaise with retailers who sell the newspaper; sell subscriptions; and supervise distribution of the printed newspapers through the mail, by newspaper carriers , at retailers, and through vending machines. Free newspapers do not sell subscriptions, but they still have a circulation department responsible for distributing the newspapers.

Sales staff in the advertising department not only sell ad space to clients such as local businesses, but also help clients design and plan their advertising campaigns. Other members of the advertising department may include graphic designers , who design ads according to the customers' specifications and the department's policies. In an advertising-free newspaper , there is no advertising department.

Newspapers often refine distribution of ads and news through zoning and editioning. Zoning occurs when advertising and editorial content change to reflect the location to which the product is delivered. The editorial content often may change merely to reflect changes in advertising—the quantity and layout of which affects the space available for editorial—or may contain region-specific news. In rare instances, the advertising may not change from one zone to another, but there will be different region-specific editorial content.

As the content can vary widely, zoned editions are often produced in parallel. Editioning occurs in the main sections as news is updated throughout the night.

The advertising is usually the same in each edition with the exception of zoned regionals, in which it is often the 'B' section of local news that undergoes advertising changes. As each edition represents the latest news available for the next press run, these editions are produced linearly, with one completed edition being copied and updated for the next edition.

The previous edition is always copied to maintain a Newspaper of Record and to fall back on if a quick correction is needed for the press. For example, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal offer a regional edition, printed through a local contractor, and featuring locale specific content.

The Journal's global advertising rate card provides a good example of editioning. See also Los Angeles Times suburban sections. Most modern newspapers [40] are in one of three sizes:. Newspapers are usually printed on cheap, off-white paper known as newsprint.

Since the s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-color process , offset printing. In addition, desktop computers, word processing software , graphics software , digital cameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the newspaper production process.

These technologies have enabled newspapers to publish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design. To help their titles stand out on newsstands, some newspapers are printed on coloured newsprint. For example, the Financial Times is printed on a distinctive salmon pink paper, and Sheffield 's weekly sports publication derives its name, the Green 'Un , from the traditional colour of its paper. Both the latter promoted major cycling races and their newsprint colours were reflected in the colours of the jerseys used to denote the race leader; for example the leader in the Giro d'Italia wears a pink jersey.

The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days typically Sunday , is called the newspaper's circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost.

Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read especially for those distributed free. In the United States, the Alliance for Audited Media maintains historical and current data on average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals.

According to the Guinness Book of Records , the daily circulation of the Soviet newspaper Trud exceeded 21,, in , while the Soviet weekly Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,, in Germany's Bild , with a circulation of 3.

In the United Kingdom, The Sun is the top seller, with around 3. While paid readership of print newspapers has been steadily declining in the developed OECD nations, it has been rising in the chief developing nations Brazil, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa , whose paid daily circulation exceeded those of the developed nations for the first time in According to the Indian Readership Survey, the Dainik Jagran is the most-read, local-language Hindi newspaper, with A common measure of a newspaper's health is market penetration, expressed as a percentage of households that receive a copy of the newspaper against the total number of households in the paper's market area.

In the s, on a national basis in the U. As other media began to compete with newspapers, and as printing became easier and less expensive giving rise to a greater diversity of publications, market penetration began to decline. It wasn't until the early s, however, that market penetration dipped below percent. By , it was 53 percent and still falling.

For example, someone might want only a Sunday paper, or perhaps only Sunday and Saturday, or maybe only a workweek subscription, or perhaps a daily subscription. Most newspapers provide some or all of their content on the Internet, either at no cost or for a fee. In some cases, free access is available only for a matter of days or weeks, or for a certain number of viewed articles, after which readers must register and provide personal data.

In other cases, free archives are provided. The business model of having advertising subsidize the cost of printing and distributing newspapers and, it is always hoped, the making of a profit rather than having subscribers cover the full cost was first done, it seems, in by The Sun , a daily paper that was published in New York City.

Rather than charging 6 cents per copy, the price of a typical New York daily at the time, they charged 1-cent, and depended on advertising to make up the difference. Newspapers in countries with easy access to the web have been hurt by the decline of many traditional advertisers.

Department stores and supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages of newspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much less likely to do so now. The classified category is shifting to sites including Craigslist , employment websites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many types of digital content including websites, rich media platforms, and mobile.

In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most commonly recognized as an opposite-editorial which third parties pay a fee to have included in the paper.

Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques, such as a new design for golf equipment, a new form of laser surgery, or weight-loss drugs. The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story.

Such articles are often clearly distinguished from editorial content through either the design and layout of the page or with a label declaring the article as an advertisement.

However, there has been growing concern over the blurring of the line between editorial and advertorial content. Since newspapers began as a journal record of current events , the profession involved in the making of newspapers began to be called journalism. In the yellow journalism era of the 19th century, many newspapers in the United States relied on sensational stories that were meant to anger or excite the public, rather than to inform. The restrained style of reporting that relies on fact checking and accuracy regained popularity around World War II.

Criticism of journalism is varied and sometimes vehement. Credibility is questioned because of anonymous sources; errors in facts, spelling, and grammar; real or perceived bias ; and scandals involving plagiarism and fabrication.

In the past, newspapers have often been owned by so-called press barons , and were used for gaining a political voice. Newspapers have, in the modern world, played an important role in the exercise of freedom of expression. Whistle-blowers, and those who "leak" stories of corruption in political circles often choose to inform newspapers before other mediums of communication, relying on the perceived willingness of newspaper editors to expose the secrets and lies of those who would rather cover them.

However, there have been many circumstances of the political autonomy of newspapers being curtailed. Recent research has examined the effects of a newspaper's closing on the reelection of incumbents, voter turnout, and campaign spending. Opinions of other writers and readers are expressed in the op-ed "opposite the editorial page" and letters to the editors sections of the paper. Some ways newspapers have tried to improve their credibility are: By the late s, the availability of news via hour television channels and then the availability of online journalism posed an ongoing challenge to the business model of most newspapers in developed countries.

Paid circulation has declined, while advertising revenue—which makes up the bulk of most newspapers' income—has been shifting from print to the new media social media websites and news websites , resulting in a general decline in print newspapers' revenues and profits. Many newspapers around the world launched online editions in the s, in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their audience. One of the big challenges is that a number of online news websites, such as Google news , are free to access.

Some online news sites are free, and rely on online advertising; other online news sites have a paywall and require paid subscription for access. However, in the non-developed countries, cheaper printing and distribution, increased literacy, the growing middle class and other factors have more than compensated for the emergence of electronic media and newspapers continue to grow.

On 10 April , The American Reporter became the first daily Internet-based newspaper, with its own paid reporters around the world and all-original content. The editor-in-chief and founder is Joe Shea.

The site is owned by journalists. In the late s the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen—especially in the United States, where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since The debate has become more urgent lately, as the recession shaved newspapers' profits, and as once-explosive growth in newspaper web revenues has leveled off, forestalling what the industry hoped would become an important source of revenue.

As of , an increasing percentage of Millennials young adults get their news from social media websites such as Facebook. In the s, many traditional newspapers have begun offering "digital editions", which can be accessed via desktop computer , laptops , and mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. Online newspapers may offer new advertising opportunities to newspaper companies, as online advertising enables much more precise targeting of ads; with an online newspaper, for example, different readers, such as Baby boomers and Millennials can be sent different advertisements.

At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of publishing was now born. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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