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❶Domestic politics is not of immense significance; this has been depicted by an eminent assumption related to structural realism, global association. China's Economy and Foreign Policy.

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The country is 9th largest country in the world with plenty of natural resources, with variety of ethnic nations and with high level of economy. The government of the sovereign Kazakhstan with its president Nursultan Nazarbayev developed strategic plan for the prosperity of the country.

Gaining sovereignty was very important for the population, so the government tries to do everything that in their hands for not losing their independence. Some of the main goals of this strategic plan was developing national identity of the country, creation of national image on the international arena and gaining recognition by the international community. The government developed such important policies to increase national feelings of the population as process of Kazakhization and language policies in Kazakhstan, publishing all necessary documents, making changes in their Constitution and introducing other domestic policies for introduction main elements of these processes.

Domestic policies were not enough, so the government decided to use foreign policy decisions for strong nation building process, because the way how the country presents itself on international arena, population will follow, value and develop themselves and their interests.

Other foreign policy strategy was representation the country and gaining its place on international arena with own national interests, values and culture. Kazakhstan is one of the former Soviet Socialistic countries who achieved its main foreign policy and national identity goals which led to the prosperity and development of sovereign Kazakhstan.

This work aims to research relationship of national identity and foreign policy decisions through the following question: How do foreign policy decisions of Kazakhstan shape the process of nation building in the country? The hypothesis that was developed for this dissertation answering research question is that foreign policy decisions shape national identity of Kazakhstan through the development of their image and representation themselves on international arena.

Mainly this thesis work is based on qualitative approach, because it explores, analyzes and investigates all necessary data about national identity and foreign policy of Kazakstan through the secondary sources.

For the analysis of foreign policy events, the thesis is used such secondary data as books, articles in newspapers, analytical papers and journal articles. The dissertation is structured in a following way. Also it discuses features of constructivism theory the dissertation based on, which explains relationship between two processes. The second chapter analyzes historical background of Kazakhstan, discussing events which became roots for national identity building process, and provides policies on this process which were implemented after the country gained independence.

The third chapter of the thesis provides analysis of foreign policy policies that were developed, which influenced on shaping nation-building process of the country. Finally, conclusion summarizes all main points and findings of the research giving suggestions for the further research in this certain area.

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He continued to rally for peace even while the United States was immersed in the war. In he went to Paris as the head of the American commission for negotiating a peace in Europe. He was well-received but the allies did not feel they could pull out of the war. Near the end of his term, Wilson suffered a stroke and discontinued any foreign travel, curtailing much of his presidential duties as well Lorant, Chavez won his Presidency by majority vote of the people.

Venezuela represents the most obvious example where the U. Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia with its lineage-based selection of rulers represents the furthest from a democracy that one can get. Bin Laden claims that the U. Many regimes in…… [Read More]. However, the suggested equivalence of the rightful criticism of those relationships and support for Israel are fundamentally flawed and invalid.

Specifically, the phrase "at the expense of the Palestinians" p ignores the reality of how the Palestinian became "refugees" in the first place, the degree to which Israel tried to negotiate a fair settlement during the Clinton administration, and the degree to which corrupt Palestinian leaders undermined those efforts for personal gain and to perpetuate rather than end violence in the region.

The author also equates the justified and measured U. Likewise, the author presents an inaccurate view of civilian casualties and ignores the tremendous extent to which the U. Australia's Domestic and Foreign Policy. This would be demonstrated by its unwavering willingness to follow the United States even into its poorly-informed and ill-advised invasion of Iraq, providing combat troops and civilian military aid. During the lead- up to this war, in fact, John Howard would perhaps have been noted as only second to Britain's Prime Minister Tony Blair in the ranking of Iraq War cheerleaders, appearing frequently in the media in order to endorse the alleged provocations made by the U.

Howard echoed well the terms which Bush used to prompt war, remarking in a February appearance that the Australian government was firm in "backing…… [Read More]. United States Foreign Policy in. Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.

Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation.

This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism. As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. North Korean Foreign Policy During. This policy has led to an increasingly negative view of this country abroad, as well as likely increased the danger presented by unstable regimes like that in operation in North Korea.

The changes that are likely to occur after Obama's inauguration are difficult to predict. As mentioned above, an increase in negotiations and the possibility of more concessions on the part of the United States, at least in terms of aid, are likely to be seen. By appointing the more hawkish Hillary Clinton to the position of Secretary of State, however, Obama may be signaling that is approach will be hard-lined than has previously been believed Beck , par.

Only time will tell, of course, although North Korea's announcement that they have discontinued their nuclear weapons research is encouraging place at which to begin the historical negotiations. References Beck, Peter M. First records came from Arab traders of the 9th and 10th centuries who had commercial relations with the native for slaves, gold and ivory. The Portuguese took over through sea routes at the time The Gambia became part of the Kingdom of Mali.

Exclusive trade rights were sold to the English under Queen Elizabeth I. In the 17th and 18th centuries, England and France fought for political and commercial control over it until the Treaty of Versailles of turned it over to Great Britain.

Slaves from The Gambia were first taken to Europe when the labor market expanded in the West Indies and North America in the 18th century. Politics Foreign Policy Questions and. The Al-Aqsa Intifadah which began, I believe, in about when the Camp David talks were then stalling was begun by PLO and still exists today much less actively than from about to about , roughly under the PLO umbrella.

Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States? No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such.

Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem and is. And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…… [Read More]. Foreign and Domestic Intelligence the. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels.

As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions. Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized.

The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues.

The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with Russia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…… [Read More]. Foreign Relations of the U S. A second lesson was found in Kennedy's management of the crisis.

The basic lesson learned was that, in the midst of such a crisis, leaders need time away from the glare of the media to resolve their own thinking and communications, and they need the self-confidence to limit their objectives to only what is needed to resolve the crisis, not "win" it. It is believed that the Soviet's lesson was that you can't mess with nuclear weapons. In other words, when it gets to the point that you know you might destroy millions of innocent people, that is the depth of fear that leaders must realize, confront, and not back away from.

What they must do is back away from the unnecessary and catastrophic events their pride might trigger. The lessons learned by European leaders were probably not good ones. Kennedy did not consult with them during this crisis. Foreign Relations the United States. Smaller nations with limited power can be coerced simply by the nature of economic dependence.

For most of the world's major economies, however, a degree of soft speech is required. Wielding a big stick on larger countries is likely to alienate them. In recent years, we have seen significant alienation of U. The result has been that foreign policy objectives in Iraq and Afghanistan have not met with the anticipated success. Objectives with respect to much stronger adversaries, such as China or Russia, clearly cannot be met by the U. Therefore, speaking softly will cultivate relationships and allegiances.

Coalitions can be built to help the U. Ultimately, it is worth remembering that size of the America's stick is limited by the extent to which it is can be used. Many adversaries have significant sticks of their own, which limits the willingness of the…… [Read More]. Foreign Relations Reasoning for European. From the very beginning, the U. Many leaders and analysts worry that the unpopular actions of the U.

European nations are therefore reluctant to enter into a cooperative agreement with the U. On many objectives since they do not want to be associated with the war due to perceived risk of attack; close borders and trade between EU countries have made it more difficult to protect European national borders.

Additionally, Europe's smaller nation size means that politics more closely represents the feelings of the people. With higher populations of sympathetic Muslims in Europe, it would be a very unpopular move to support the United States, even in the lesser foreign initiatives. Works Cited Drexner, Daniel W. Policy Was the Open Door. The Road to Confrontation: American Policy toward China and Korea, University of North Carolina Press, America's Failure in China, University of Chicago Press, The facility of most-favored-nation was later extended by the Chinese to other foreign powers as well.

Although most countries did not formally agree with the "Open Door Policy," John Hay went on to unilaterally declare that they had endorsed the policy. This consisted of an oil embargo and freezing of Japanese assets in the months preceding the Pearl Harbor attacks The Americans had also misjudged the ideological commitment of the Chinese communists and over-estimated the pro-American among the Chinese masses, believing that any Chinese government even a Communist one would remain friendly with the Americans.

Such misplaced optimism continues to be the Achilles heel of the U. Foreign Relations in His Book. However, history is full of examples that would tend to indicate that the United States' foreign policy is driven by racism and bias against gender. Take for example, the Cold War situation of British Guyana. In his book entitled U. Intervention in British Guiana: Rabe tells the story of a massive United States covert intervention between and It is Rabe's contention that the foundation of this covert intervention was a basis of gender bias and racism on the part of the United States Government.

What is today known as Guyana was at one time a colony of Great Britain. In the 's, Guyana was set to gain its independence. However, government officials in the Kennedy and Johnson White Houses were concerned that the a newly independent Guyana would become a communist nation under the leadership of Cheddi Jagan. Jagan was a…… [Read More]. The negative aspect of the matter however, is the limited breakthroughs made at the practical level, as most discussions end in declarative aims, yet no timeline for an actual implementation of them.

On the one hand, the European Union did not present itself as very willing to offer economic incentives and aid to the ailing Russian Federation, and on the other hand, Russian opposition forces who argue against a westernization of the country encourage a limited enthusiasm towards an increased cooperation partnership. In this way, both parties, although are engaged in a partnership, act in such a manner as to discourage any advancements of talks.

The stalemate that has continuously characterized the Partnership was obvious in many instances. One moment that was of great importance for the European Union and to which the Russian Federation more or less opposed was the enlargement process. In that context, "Russia has transmitted…… [Read More]. S fight against terrorism as made popular by the Bush regime. Previously, United States strategies to combat terrorism targeted on attacks against its interests overseas, and support for other governments' initiatives to control terrorism functions within their borders.

However, Sept 11 exposed weaknesses to terrorism by non-state players within U. In reaction, the U. S reformed its anti-terrorist techniques to prevent future attacks by focusing on terrorists, foreign and local, known and potential. At the most basic level, FISA describes the techniques needed to perform digital surveillance to obtain global intelligence. Considerably, these methods…… [Read More]. Policy of Containment After World. The Soviets desire to establish their "sphere of influence" in Eastern Europe and disagreement with the U.

The Soviet testing of the atomic bomb in and its tacit approval of a North Korean attack on South Korea that led to the Korean War further soured relations between the two nations. The Vietnam War in which the U. And the Soviet Union. Bell, References Containment. Nuclear Age Peace Foundation. Retrieved on November 18, at http: The World since -- An International History. Oxford University Press Inc. Foreign Intelligence Services There is much controversy with regard to the foreign policy practiced by the majority of powerful nations in the contemporary society.

In an environment where intelligence is often the key to success, emerging powers have the tendency to improve their intelligence services and to get actively involved in competing with some of the established actors in the international setting. While Russia proved to be an impressive adversary for the U. When considering the U. Russian-American relations have been turbulent throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The s have brought a breath of fresh air…… [Read More].

Combating Terrorism a Policy. Project outline In the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks, the U. Unfortunately, evidence indicates that al Qaeda and other terrorist groups apparently affiliated with or inspired by al Qaeda have worked quite economically, using low-budget methods to operate.

Typologies The evolving effects of globalization and the transnational nature of terrorism have combined to create almost limitless possibilities for terrorists looking to finance operations Sheppard, One problem with combating terrorist financing is that many forms of…… [Read More]. They had come in, in , as a strategy to prevent China from ferrying weapons through the country.

However, there was resistance to this through the efforts of Ho Chi Minh, who would later lead the independent country. He was a communist, and this would help him in accessing aid from the communist China when fighting against the French in the southern part of this country. The south was under the French rule, and thus, not part of the growing communism movement. Concerned over the threat of communist domination of the great part of Asia, the United States decided to back the French, so that they could set up a friendly government.

However, they were defeated in the ensuing war, though they did not leave, but signed a peace agreement. Foreign Aid and Economic Development Does foreign aid boost hinder economic development? In theoretic perspectives, foreign aid should be capable of triggering social and economic growth, mostly in developing nations through financial assistance offered by affluent developed nations. However, the donors offer the aid on conditional basis. In most cases, only the countries with good governance receive the aid.

Latin America shares similar features with Africa in terms of strong presidential features and poor legislature. For this reason, Latin America embraces the aspect of accountability and reshapes their weak institutions by enhancing the rule of law and…… [Read More]. Foreign Aid Effects on Nigeria an Honest.

As of the latest count, it has a population of million at an annual growth rate of 2. Nigeria is the fourth largest exporter of oil to the United States. Economists describe this as a "paradox of plenty" or the "curse of oil. Foreign assistance attempts to deliver these countries' people from poverty, and provide security, military assistance and counter-terrorism measures.

New technologies and ever-growing population demands a much more disciplined and organized health care industry Abood, This is possible when there are policies, rules and regulations about medical procedures. The medical industry involves some policies today that a person could never imagine few centuries ago.

For example there are policies for sperm donation, use of organs after death for research purposes and saving human genome in labs. In the same way there are many other medical procedures that are in policy making phase for example abortion, long-term care, state sponsored insurance of immigrants etc. This paper discusses the policy making process of long-term care. The stages of policy making discussed here are evaluation, analysis and revision.

Evaluation stage Some topics are too controversial that they cannot…… [Read More]. The majority of people there live longer than people in many other developed nations, and the infant mortality rate is also very low.

Those things show that people in Hong Kong are committed to their health and that they have a government that enacts policies to protect them and allow them to have full access to health care. Many countries do not offer that to their citizens, so Hong Kong is actually something of a rarity - and allows its people to enjoy a life expectancy of upwards of 80 years for both men and women.

That is the second-longest life expectancy of any country in the world. Of course, there are imperfections in the…… [Read More]. Foreign Monetary System A monetary system is any structure initiated by the government and mandated to issue currency, acknowledged as the medium of exchange by its citizens and governments of other nations. The central bank manages the monetary system of a country; this same bank has the responsibility of printing money and controlling the economy.

Since the colonial period, coins from the European colonies had circulated in all the colonies. The Spanish coins gained dominance due to the scarcity of coins, during this time; the main form of trade was barter trade. The high population in the U. This forced the United States government to look for…… [Read More]. Diversification is expanding a company's current operations by adding new markets, products, services or stages of production to its current portfolio.

It is all about entering a single or a series of new business lines that differ from its current operations Cengage, Murphy Auto Company MAC is one of the largest luxury automobile company which wishes to diversify and enjoy even greater profits compared to its competitors.

The justification behind the need to diversify first and foremost is the intense competition that the brand faces from cheaper car companies, since due to recession, people prefer buying cheaper alternatives compared to buying such brands like Mercedes and MAC.

Another justification for diversification is the inability of the firm to fully satisfy the needs of the target market owing to the cultural differences of societies they operate in. By diversifying…… [Read More]. Foreign Health Care Policy. This is because rising costs are impacting demand for different services. What has been happening is these increases are forcing insurance companies, employers and providers to pass on more of these fees to the individual.

This is problematic, as they are unable to afford these costs and premiums for coverage. When this happens, the total number of people who are uninsured will increase exponentially. Evidence of this can be seen with the fact that there are 48 million Americans who have no form of health care coverage. This is because they are using a different model. To fully understand which system is better requires comparing the two…… [Read More].

Foreign Aid in Haiti the. Although the UN Mission was present in the region and tried to ensure a safe passage from a regime which lacked all regard for democracy, human rights, or economic development, the perspectives and the time frame instituted for these were not optimistic. Indeed, the UN aims to secure a strong, coherent, and secure form of government through its missions and interventions.

However, the most important element for a state is to provide a strong central government that would deal with organization matters, with management of aid relief in situations such as the one in Haiti. Still, given the political turmoil experienced by the country it is difficult to be able to manage such an operation. Therefore, from this point-of-view, it is fair to say that an important element in the failure of the aid relief actions was the lack of a strong government organization.

Another crucial issue to be taken…… [Read More]. We focus on a critical evaluation of the success as well as failure of foreign aid in Africa Ethiopia. What are investigated are the factors that affect growth, the scopes behind foreign aid and reasons for failure.

The aim of the study however, is to explore and survey the impact of foreign aid on economic growth and the country as a whole. We then focus on five major objectives. The first one is such as the relationship that exists between foreign aid and a country's economic growth. The second objective is the investigation of the economic impact of foreign aid on consumption and investment. The third objective is the investigation whether recipient government misuse aid as a result…… [Read More].

Foreign Aid Is Defined as. AID and other donors within the years and has vanished into oblivion. According to Brain Atwood, U. The s has been branded by the United Nations Development Program as the "lost decade" in case of a number of poorer nations. Over a greater part of this phase, the economic downturn or stalemate has impacted nations, curtailing the earnings of 1.

The average earnings of 70 of these nations are lower than what they were during the s and in 43 nations less compared to what their state were in


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Sep 02,  · Foreign Policy Essay Oliver Atkins / Janet Lindenmuth (background) In this feature, Brookings senior fellow and terrorism expert Daniel Byman and deputy foreign policy editor Dana Stuster curate a weekly essay on foreign and military affairs of interest to national security legal practitioners and scholars.

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The aim of this work is to examine the influence of foreign policy decisions on national identity in the case of Kazakhstan, providing the analysis of foreign policy’s policies . Foreign Affairs — The leading magazine for analysis and debate of foreign policy, economics and global affairs.