This sense allows us to see by simply reflecting light onto one of our organs. The complex part however is the decoding of the information that is reflected. Our minds interpret the light that is reflected and turn it into information for us to sense our environment.
It can be argued that the processed information is not always true. The visual effect generally presents the viewer with two shape interpretations, each of which is consistent with the image. The viewer is meant to see two images; one being two humans facing each other and the other is a vase. This form is an illusion and is created by the mind.
The fact that there are two images seen to us does not mean that one of them has to be wrong. There is no wrong or right, it is just how our brains interpret the information. It can be considered that these interpretations are affected by our lifestyles and societies. Interpretation of the same image also changes from person to person. If looked on a bigger scale, these changes are affected from differences in cultures and paradigms.
Color is also a major variable in testing perception after illusions. Do we see colors differently? In the English language, there are distinct words to describe specific colors. Any kind of conclusion can be made from this research. For example, because of less vegetation in Namibia, the habitants have a more fragile sense of color when it comes to green.
They can differentiate very easily. Everybody sees the same wavelength but every individual sees a different color. Emotions also play a vital part in creating a perception. This comes from my personal socialisation process and subjective information the media has given me on gangs. Lewis and Slade , p. As this essay has shown, perception is a process where one becomes aware of events, objects and people in the environment surrounding them.
Perception can be affected by stereotyping, a shortcut that most people are guilty of it, and most have been subjected to it sometime in their life. The communication skills book 2nd ed.
New Harbinger DeVito, J. The interpersonal communication book 10th ed. Introduction to social psychology 3rd ed. Themes and variations 3rd ed. There is no reason for an argument on which side of the brain is better because they are both used for different functions.
A good example would be that most people who are left sided are often more logical than the right. The right side is said to be more intuitive thoughtful and subjective. The right side of the brain theory grew out of the This story, Hills Like White Elephants, is taken form the Objective dramatic point of view where the author is the narrator.
The author doesn't enter the mind of the characters at any time. He allows us only to see the characters as we would in real life. This is sometimes called the dramatic point of view. The only way we, the reader, learn anything about ABSTRACT A resilience framework for understanding cognitive aging implies a search for factors that buffer against existing risk, enabling one to thrive in what might otherwise be adverse circumstances.
The cascade of biological processes associated with senescence and a cultural context that does not take into account this biological imperative each create risk for cognitive decline in later adulthood. We propose that a engagement, a During this course, I have learned that Clinical Psychology uses both research and practice to be able to understand and assess the problems and illnesses of their patients. Their tasks includes the early prevention and intervention of secondary problems of disturbed individuals ranging from infants to older people, as well as promote mental health in individuals, families, groups and organizations.
In the period of assessment, It would be interesting to note that getting the compliance of the participants and extracting information that would enhance the results is not an easy task. On the other hand processes which originate from lower level physiological and stimulation information are known as bottom-up processing.
Some psychologists hold the view that perceptual recognition is made possible because a particular set of neurons in the brain are activated, as and when they find an appropriate matter in the field of perception. This is like the phenomenon where only one tuning fork from among a row goes into vibration, when its corroborating match is set in motion.
This is the hierarchical feature detection model. But the difficulty with this model is that this would require a specific set of neurons or feature detection in our brain.
Every corresponding sound or light stimulus should have such detectors. Though it is now known that there are specific set of neurons for certain specific stimulus characteristics, the possibility of having an endless number of specific detectors is yet to be proved. Thus the correctness of this view depends on further achievements in neurology regarding the neuronal functions. A different and perhaps more widely accepted view is that there occurs what may be called feature analysis.
According to this view, the specific detection neurons are of such a type that they can operate in different combinations. For example, they may be recognised as a pair of vertical lines which are parallel with a horizontal line connecting the two in the middle. Feature analysis involves the brain analysing experiences or perceptual contents into such sets and whenever such set or combination, is available for retrieval from neurons, then recognition occurs.
This concept of feature analysis explains how people recognise stimuli and in addition, also provides a clue as to how different stimuli can be given a common interpretation. For example, when we see different flowers, though we see them as different, we see them all as flowers.
But what happens when a. For example, it is very difficult for us or at least some of us to recognise cauliflower as a flower, though many stimulus characteristics resemble that of many other flowers.
It is here that the concept of feature analysis cannot explain, what happens, when the stimuli are ambiguous and are both similar and dissimilar to stored up combinations. It is here that one sees the limitations of bottom up processing theory. It is in this context that the top down processing comes into operation. These expectations based on past experiences and contextual factors, set in motion certain perceptual sets.
The role of expectancy in perceptual recognition was clearly demonstrated in an experiment by Palmer. Palmer showed his subject a scene of a kitchen.
Then they were given a very brief exposure to two objects, one resembling a loaf of bread context relevant and another a mail box context irrelevant. The two objects were of the same size and shape. But the subject recognised the loaf of bread more than the mail box, thus showing the influence of centrally aroused expectancy. Motivation is another factor. The importance of needs in influencing process of perceptions has already been examined.
The classical experiments of Brownes and others have already demonstrated the role of motivational factors and needs in the process of perception. Normally in most acts of perception both top down and bottom up processes work together, each supplementing and complementing the other.
Top down processing plays a more crucial role where the stimulus situations are ambiguous, or relatively unfamiliar. A number of experiments have shown that our perception is very much influenced by the totality of our personality, and personalities have been classified even on the basis of perceptual styles or modes. When we think about perceptual experiences they seem to be incredibly paradoxical.
We realise that we see mobility in stationary objects, immobility in moving objects, and see things which are incomplete as complete. The cues which are said to facilitate perception of distance can, at times, corrupt and distort the same. Similarly, we are able to respond to a stimulus appropriately even with a distorted, wrong or absent retinal image. This contradicts the view that the retinal image is a true reproduction of the object being sensed and considered as a basic mechanism which provokes an appropriate action or reaction.
All these make us wonder if we are in a world of illusions or whether perception, by itself, is a big illusion. One such paradoxical phenomenon discussed here is perceptual constancy.
The phenomenon of constancy refers to our perceptual experiences wherein perception remains constant, in spite of the fact that stimulating conditions stipulate a change.
Thus, the human being is perceived to be of the same height whether he is seen from a distance of two feet, five feet or fifteen feet. The phenomenon of constancy is seen in relation to several attributes of the objects like shape and size.
To a certain extent the phenomenon of constancy also results in errors of perception, though its advantages far outweigh its disadvantages.
If we accept that the infant does not have to learn entirely to distinguish between forms, shapes and sounds in his environment, but possesses a congenital capacity to do so, there is yet another problem which has aroused a lot of controversy.
When we talk of visual perception in particular, how do infants — or even adults — actually make sense of visual objects? The obvious answer seems to be that objects in the external world appear as images on the retina and the individual then responds to these images as objects. However, the answer is not quite so simple. The retina receives images which vary drastically depending on the particular lighting conditions, the viewing angle and the distance of the object at any given time.
If one were to perceive objects merely on the basis of retinal images, one would see a different object at each angle and at each distance from which the same object was viewed. This obviously, does not happen.
When we see a plate at an angle its retinal image is an ellipse. If we see it head on then the retinal image is a complete circle. Yet, we know that both the greatly differing images are of the same object. When we see a chair from a foot away, the retinal image we receive is much larger than that received when the chair is two yards away from us.
Yet we know that it is the same object. How do we come to know this? The controversy that has surrounded the answer to this question has been again one of the opposition between the view that the child is born with the complete ability to see the world as the adult sees it, and the view that the child has to learn to see stable objects.
For a long time the latter view held sway-namely, that the individual has to learn to compensate for the differences in angle, colour and distance presented by the same objects. Recently, however, this view has been challenged and it has been shown that infants of six to eight weeks possess the ability to compensate for changes in the size and shape of retinal images. Very young infants were conditioned to a cube of a certain size shown at a distance of one metre. Different-size cubes were then shown at a distance of three metres from the infant.
The conditioned response was always given, not to the larger cube which would have presented the same size of retinal image as did the correct cube at one metre, but to the correct cube despite its smaller retinal image size. Size constancy, however, does not occur in the absence of information or cues regarding the distance of the object. Holway and Boring showed that the judged size of cardboard disks became more and more inaccurate as more distance cues were eliminated.
Similar constancies occur regarding colour. A familiar object is always perceived as having the same colour even under different lighting conditions. For example, a piece of white paper is perceived as white whether seen under the yellowish glow of candle light, the stark whiteness of a tube light or under any other coloured lights. Perceptual constancy, then, seems to be partly due to some innate mechanism and partly due to the influence of past experience and knowledge.
He believed that our perceptions of the objects and people in our environment are subjective. In other words, they are based upon the assumptions we have built up about various objects and people.
The organism, therefore, creates its phenomenal world. Perception of movement is essential not only to human beings but also to animals. Movement is closely linked to the instinct of self-preservation because moving objects sometimes mean danger. However, the perception of movement involves both the visual messages from the eye as an image moves across the retina and the kinesthetic messages from the muscles around the eye as they shift the eye to follow a moving object.
But at times our perceptual processes play tricks on us and we think we perceive movement when the objects we are looking at are actually not moving at all.
Thus, perceived movements can be divided into two types: Real movement means the actual physical displacement of an object from one position to another. When we see a car being driven we perceive only the car in motion and the other things around it like trees, buildings etc. Illusory movement is that when an individual perceives objects as moving although they are stationary as is shown in Fig. One perceives this figure as moving black waves.
Another example to illustrate this phenomena is an experience that you must have often felt while sitting in a stationary train; if another train moves by you feel that your own train is moving. Another form of illusory movement is stroboscopic motion-the apparent motion created by a rapid movement of a series of images of stationary objects. A motion picture, for example, is not actually in motion at all.
The film consists of a series of still pictures each one showing persons or objects in slightly different positions. When these separate images are projected in a sequence on to the screen at a specified speed, the persons or objects seem to be moving because of the rapid change from one still picture to the next.
The same illusion occurs when two lights are set apart at a suitable distance from each other and when they are switched on and off at an interval of one sixteenth of a second.
As a consequence the perceptual effect created is that of one light moving back and forth. This phenomenon of apparent motion is called the phi-phenomenon. Perception develops gradually as the individual grows and develops.
It has also been shown that it is influenced to a great extent by the biological needs, maturation, learning, culture etc. The experiments of Gibson and Bowers show that depth and object perceptions are inborn, i. Goldstein emphasised the gradual development of perception from concrete to abstract.
However, Goldstein does not make a direct reference to perception but refers to it as the development of thinking or attitude. Witkin emphasises that perception which in the early years is field dependent gradually transforms itself into field independent. Thus, stability and abstraction become possible as the individual develops.
Von Senden presented a very interesting data regarding the patients who were born blind but have gained their vision as the result of operations. Von Senden found that these patients did not experience normal perception immediately after they gained vision. When an object was shown to them they could see something against a background but could not identify it, its shape and its distance from them.
Colour discriminations were learned immediately. However learning to identify forms and objects in different contexts was a long and difficult process.
One patient learned to identify an egg, a potato and sugar in normal light on a table after many repetitions although he failed to recognise the same objects in colour light or when they were suspended by a thread with a change of background. He could point correctly to the source of a sound but could not say from which direction it was coming. One can know from the above studies that perception does not develop overnight; perceptual capacity may be inborn but the ability develops gradually along with the development of other processes.
The perceptual processes enable an individual to perceive things around him accurately and facilitate his smooth functioning. However, some errors creep into this process, under certain circumstances, leading to wrong or impaired perceptions.
A mistaken perception or distortion in perception is called an illusion.
Perception is the process by which people organize and obtain meaning from the sensory motivation they receive from the environment. This report.
Free Perception papers, essays, and research papers. Visual Perception and Visual Imagery - If visual imagery and visual perception shared many of the same processes, then much of what is known to date about perception may be used and adapted to be able to understand the more internal and ambiguous process of visual imagery.
Perception INTRODUCTION Perception is defined as a process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world/5(11). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Perception 2. Phenomenological and Gestalt View on Perception 3. Perceptual Organisation 4. Transactional Approach 5. Depth Perception 6. Constancy 7. Perception of Movement 8. Development 9. Errors Studies. Contents: Essay on the Introduction to Perception Essay .
Perception is the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses. It is the way in which something is regarded and understood. Metaphysicians, Logicians, Political and Social philosophers have thought about perception since . Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!