This may have encouraged researchers interested in quantitative data analysis to give higher priority to the tourism industry in their research agenda.
At the same time stakeholders of the industry, including destination managers, local and federal governments, keen to make more informed decisions, by devising better policies and evaluating existing are paying more attention to results from quantitative research.
The approaches used by tourism researchers are heavily informed by progress in econometrics and statistical analysis across all social science disciplines. At the same time, qualitative research is a well-established approach to researching phenomena in the social sciences. Comparatively, its application in the fields of tourism studies and management is a more recent occurrence dating from the late s and s.
Increasingly, however, in the early decades of the twenty-first century, qualitative research is gaining broader acceptance within those fields. The discussion makes it clear that our reflexive lenses on tourism phenomena have been heavily founded in western developed world contexts. The application of western centric concepts and dimensions assumes that these are universal and that different cultures and peoples of the world use the same lenses to understand and interpret the world.
In the view of many theorists, Western epistemologies are insufficient to support alternate knowledge bases with regard to tourism phenomena. Tourism research needs to incorporate and promote ways of knowing and researching that are not just predicated on western worldviews, embracing multicultural research teams and multicultural studies, which are emically focused and are contextually and temporally situated.
The chapters in Handbook of Research Methods in Tourism: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches address the most important established and emerging qualitative and quantitative research methods in tourism. The book comprises 25 chapters each devoted to a different research method. Each chapter is structured to provide detailed overview of the nature of the research method, its use in tourism, its advantages and limitations and future directions for research.
All chapter contributors are active researchers in tourism and all have international standing in the discipline. All have published works that use the technique that they write about. The 41 authors are based in 26 universities in 8 countries giving the book a truly international perspective. A bio for each contributor appears at the back of the book. Well, for starters, there is no book on the market that structures the material on research methods in the way that the authors have done for this book.
All of the authors were required to structure their chapter in the same way. This structure makes the contents of each chapter much more informative to the reader, providing a comprehensive discussion of the technique itself as well as its application in tourism and related contexts. The editors are confident that the imposed structure will result in the individual contributions making an important contribution to tourism studies, ensuring that each will be highly informative and widely referenced in the literature.
The chapters are constructed in a way that they provide a detailed overview of the different techniques irrespective of their tourism applications. In this way the volume should appeal to social scientists in general and not just to researchers in tourism. If tourism studies are to be credible and add to our knowledge in this discipline area, researchers must employ methods of analysis that are at the cutting edge of social science research.
The progress made in advancing tourism knowledge in recent years, and its increasing relevance to policy formulation, is due in no small part to the use of more sophisticated research methodologies by analysts. He publishes widely in the areas of tourism economics, management and policy, with publications in international journals, government reports, books, book chapters, and monographs.
Sustainable tourism will make a huge financial input to the destination and world economy Hassan Sustainability is one of the vital concepts of tourism development. Local communities are the crucial motivation for tourists to travel by experiencing the different thought of life. The development of tourist destinations widely depends on its social responsibilities, political stability and well planned tourism future goal. These things can bring huge socio-cultural reimbursement; upgrade living standards of communities and economic growth come from its superb tourism distribution.
An alternative promising approach to avert those expansions is to encourage and spend in sustainable tourism. The terrorist attack at September 11, in USA makes devastating impacts on world tourism industry.
Now days the management of destinations closely think and should make their future tourism plan including such solemn issues destination recovery, risk and crisis management. As per crisis guideline of WTO for the tourism industry aware the tourist destinations that be organized before the emergency, minimise smash up during the disaster and recovering destination image and traveller confidence after the crisis.
The development of tourism industries depends on destinations calm tourist friendly environment. Beirman identified a few core reasons that makes destination crisis. Countries long-standing internal political violence. International war or clash. Terrorist attack on tourist and destinations. Natural disasters such as Strom or Volcano, Flood, Earthwork.
Health issues affecting tourist attractions. Lepp and Gibson find out four key risk factor is seriously harmful for the destination tourism growth. These are Political violence, crime, health concerns and terrorism.
International Society of Hospitality Consultants ISHC identified global issues and challenges where upward worldwide uncertainty for safety and security got priority. Tourism industry of any countries would be suffered due to crisis and especially political instability. Tourist never wants to travel certain place where several crisis going on.
Country loosing economic growth from tourism as well creates a time long negative impact as a tourist destination. Ankomah and Crompton state that, any crisis or domestic turmoil makes the country as an unsafe tourist destination where the tourist not to visit that country. While constraints on tourist movement the politics plays a vital role in the world tourism industry.
Destinations positive political stability makes encouraging and involving nations. Political turmoil makes the destination unsafe and as a result imposing travel limits by others nations in that country.
Unwanted side-effects have lead to the rising alarm for the natural wealth, human interests and extended time economic feasibility of the destinations communities Akis- Peristianis and Warner, Bangladesh is a beautiful tourist destination and it holding potential prospects on tourism sector.
The country has significant attraction to catch the attention of world tourism. Pearson noted that without well planned risk or crisis management any tourist destination institute cannot escape from crisis. Organisation should take serious effort for its risk management.
The way for the tourist destination to decrease crisis smash up to make effective preparation. Country should be taken towering concern for each business concerned in tourism industry. In the literature review, the distinguish authors has been well descried that the crisis or problems, how it affects countries tourism industry. Where, the following variables are extremely essential to improve tourism sector of the destinations: Safety and security, political instability, branding destination image and way of sustainable tourism.
In this section, we will talk about the methods, which will be used for this study. Research issues such as research design, sample, population, procedure of sampling, questionnaires and numerical examination are presented. The process by which a research is written or carried out is very important because it has a huge impact on the conclusions reached at the end of the research.
There are two major research philosophies which underpin the research strategy and the method that will be used to carry out a research Collis and Hussey, They are the positivism and interpretive research paradigm. In general, the methodology of research and term of research design are seems to signify the equal thing, but actually they are not same. The actual significance of research design is to direct the way of data collection procedure and examine the data in order to response for recognized research problem s ; but, the research methodology is to illustrates how something would be done.
Research methods are two forms quantitative and qualitative method. Use of countable data is Quantitative. On the other hand, use of non-countable data is qualitative. In this research, we are using the combination of quantitative and qualitative data methods. Appropriate data collection for this research would be using a questionnaire which well structured open — ended questions. Data related to the previous exiting literature review of the research area were gathered from different secondary sources.
It is incumbent on the researcher to clearly define the target population. There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic and judgment. The population is defined in keeping with the objectives of the study. Sometimes, the entire population will be sufficiently small, and the researcher can include the entire population in the study.
This type of research is called a census study because data is gathered on every member of the population. Usually, the population is too large for the researcher to attempt to survey all of its members. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent the population. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.
Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. For the quantitative research it is highly essential representative sample; where reflects the population completely so that conclusion can be done. To envoy the whole population sample should be big enough.
On the basis of population types we need to be more cautious to selecting the sample size. The process of data collection is to collecting appropriate data about the research from particular population. There are various way of data collections method such as interviews, questionnaires, group interviews or conference and observation. The advantage of questionnaire method is cost effectual, simple association and straightforward analysis predominantly in a quantitative research.
The objective of the qualitative research is to gain qualitative understanding of the underlying reasons and motivations of the issue in hand. The procedures of qualitative research are classified either as direct or indirect, based on whether the true purpose of the research is known to the respondents. A direct approach is not disguised. The purpose of the project is disclosed to the respondents or is otherwise obvious to them from the questions asked.
Focus groups and in-depth interviews are the main direct techniques. An indirect approach disguises the true purpose of the research. Projective techniques, the commonly used indirect techniques, consist of association, completion, construction and expressive techniques.
The quantitative primary data in descriptive research. Both these methods require some procedure for standardizing the data collection process so that the data obtained are internally consistent and can be analysed in a uniform and coherent manner.
A standard questionnaire or form will ensure comparability of the data, increase speed and accuracy of recording and facilitate data processing. A questionnaire is a formalized set of questions for obtaining information from respondents. Any questionnaire has three specific objectives. This objective is challenging. In designing the questionnaire, the researcher should strive to minimise respondent fatigue, boredom and effort to minimise incompleteness and non-response.
Response error is defined as the error that arises when respondents give inaccurate answers or their answers are misreported or misanalyses. Specify the information needed; once the research problem is well defined and the objectives of the research are well set, the information needed to serve reaching the objectives have to be specified.
A clear idea of the target population is also essential, since, more diversified the respondent group; the more difficult is to design a single questionnaire appropriate for entire group.
Specify the type of interviewing method; how the questionnaire is going to be administered influences the questionnaire design. If the respondents see the questionnaire and interact face to face with the interviewer, then lengthy, complex and varied questions can be asked. In telephone interview, the questions have to he short and simple.
If the questionnaires are mailed to the respondents, the questions must be simple and detailed instructions must be provided.
Determine the content of individual questions; Questionnaire should contribute to the information needed. If there is no satisfactory use for the data resulting from a question, that question should be eliminated.
The actual significance of research design is to direct the way of data collection procedure and examine the data in order to response for recognized research problem(s); but, the research methodology is to illustrates how something would be done.
A mixed method research can be defined in several definitions which have emerged over time incorporating various elements of methods, research processes, and philosophy and research design. Croswell and Clark [ 2] outline mixed methods as the combination of ‘qualitative and quantitative approach in the methodology of study.’.
Jan 03, · The chapters in Handbook of Research Methods in Tourism: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches address the most important established and emerging qualitative and quantitative research methods in buycoumadin.gq book comprises 25 chapters each devoted to a different research method. Each chapter is structured . This exploratory article attempts to highlight some areas of tourism research which are believed to lack sufficient methodological sophistication.
Tourism Research Methods. research is a pure research It is useful for specific issues The Knowledge is expressed in general laws, theories or models. In induction repeated observations and analysis of data leads to the formulation of theories or models that links these observation in a meaningful way.5/5(1). tourism related research issues, approaches and techniques. The result is what we hope is a tourism research book that provides a fresh perspective by integrating theory with practice while considering a wide range of research issues.