If a story took place on another planet, it would most likely be a A. If a story took place on another planet, it would most likely be a science fiction book. Generally speaking, novels have A.
There are no comments. Add an answer or comment. Log in or sign up first. Japan invaded Manchuria in to gain access to its natural resources. Get answers from Weegy and a team of really smart live experts. It is an important The Operations Section Chief: Directs tactical actions to achieve the incident objectives. Which battle was a British victory a. Geothermal energy is derived from the sun. Please select the best Before being disqualified in the 20th century by the American school of cultural anthropology Franz Boas , etc.
The neo-Darwinian synthesis, first developed in the s, eventually led to a gene-centered view of evolution in the s. According to the Human Genome Project , the most complete mapping of human DNA to date indicates that there is no clear genetic basis to racial groups.
While some genes are more common in certain populations, there are no genes that exist in all members of one population and no members of any other. The first theory of eugenics was developed in by Francis Galton — , who used the then popular concept of degeneration. He applied statistics to study human differences and the alleged " inheritance of intelligence ", foreshadowing future uses of " intelligence testing " by the anthropometry school. During the rise of Nazism in Germany , some scientists in Western nations worked to debunk the regime's racial theories.
A few argued against racist ideologies and discrimination, even if they believed in the alleged existence of biological races. However, in the fields of anthropology and biology, these were minority positions until the midth century. However, this project had been abandoned. The race question had become one of the pivots of Nazi ideology and policy.
Nazi propaganda was able to continue its baleful work unopposed by the authority of an international organisation. The Third Reich's racial policies , its eugenics programs and the extermination of Jews in the Holocaust , as well as Romani people in the Porrajmos the Romani Holocaust and others minorities led to a change in opinions about scientific research into race after the war.
Works such as Arthur de Gobineau 's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races — may be considered as one of the first theorizations of this new racism, founded on an essentialist notion of race, which opposed the former racial discourse, of Boulainvilliers for example, which saw in races a fundamentally historical reality, which changed over time.
Gobineau, thus, attempted to frame racism within the terms of biological differences among humans, giving it the legitimacy of biology. Gobineau's theories would be expanded, in France, by Georges Vacher de Lapouge — 's typology of races , who published in The Aryan and his Social Role , in which he claimed that the white, " Aryan race", " dolichocephalic ", was opposed to the "brachycephalic" race, of whom the " Jew " was the archetype.
Vacher de Lapouge thus created a hierarchical classification of races, in which he identified the " Homo europaeus Teutonic, Protestant, etc. He assimilated races and social classes , considering that the French upper class was a representation of the Homo europaeus , while the lower class represented the Homo alpinus.
Applying Galton's eugenics to his theory of races, Vacher de Lapouge's "selectionism" aimed first at achieving the annihilation of trade unionists , considered to be a "degenerate"; second, creating types of man each destined to one end, in order to prevent any contestation of labour conditions. His "anthroposociology" thus aimed at blocking social conflict by establishing a fixed, hierarchical social order. The same year, William Z. Ripley used identical racial classification in The Races of Europe , which would have a great influence in the United States.
Other scientific authors include H. Chamberlain at the end of the 19th century a British citizen who naturalized himself as German because of his admiration for the "Aryan race" and Madison Grant , a eugenicist and author of The Passing of the Great Race Madison Grant provided statistics for the Immigration Act of , which severely restricted immigration of Jews, Slavs , and southern Europeans, who were subsequently hindered in seeking to escape Nazi Germany.
Human zoos called "People Shows" , were an important means of bolstering popular racism by connecting it to scientific racism: Barnum in , a few years after the exhibition of Saartjie Baartman , the "Hottentot Venus", in England. Carl Hagenbeck , inventor of the modern zoos, exhibited animals beside humans who were considered "savages". Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was displayed in by eugenicist Madison Grant , head of the Bronx Zoo , as an attempt to illustrate the "missing link" between humans and orangutans: Evolutionary psychologists John Tooby and Leda Cosmides were puzzled by the fact that in the US race is one of the three characteristics most often used in brief descriptions of individuals the others are age and sex.
They reasoned that natural selection would not have favoured the evolution of an instinct for using race as a classification, because for most of human history, humans almost never encountered members of other races. Tooby and Cosmides hypothesized that modern people use race as a proxy rough-and-ready indicator for coalition membership, since a better-than-random guess about "which side" another person is on will be helpful if one does not actually know in advance.
Their colleague Robert Kurzban designed an experiment whose results appeared to support this hypothesis. Using the Memory confusion protocol , they presented subjects with pictures of individuals and sentences, allegedly spoken by these individuals, which presented two sides of a debate.
The errors that the subjects made in recalling who said what indicated that they sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker of the same race as the "correct" speaker, although they also sometimes misattributed a statement to a speaker "on the same side" as the "correct" speaker. In a second run of the experiment, the team also distinguished the "sides" in the debate by clothing of similar colors; and in this case the effect of racial similarity in causing mistakes almost vanished, being replaced by the color of their clothing.
In other words, the first group of subjects, with no clues from clothing, used race as a visual guide to guessing who was on which side of the debate; the second group of subjects used the clothing color as their main visual clue, and the effect of race became very small.
Some research suggests that ethnocentric thinking may have actually contributed to the development of cooperation. Political scientists Ross Hammond and Robert Axelrod created a computer simulation wherein virtual individuals were randomly assigned one of a variety of skin colors, and then one of a variety of trading strategies: They found that the ethnocentric individuals clustered together, then grew until all the non-ethnocentric individuals were wiped out.
In The Selfish Gene , evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins writes that "Blood-feuds and inter-clan warfare are easily interpretable in terms of Hamilton 's genetic theory. Despite support for evolutionary theories relating to an innate origin of racism, various studies have suggested racism is associated with lower intelligence and less diverse peer groups during childhood.
A neuroimaging study on amygdala activity during racial matching activities found increased activity to be associated with adolescent age as well as less racially diverse peer groups which the author conclude suggest a learned aspect of racism.
It was also argued amygdala activity in response to racial stimuli represents increased threat perception rather than the traditional theory of the amygdala activity represented ingroup-outgroup processing.
State racism —that is, the institutions and practices of a nation-state that are grounded in racist ideology—has played a major role in all instances of settler colonialism , from the United States to Australia. These governments advocated and implemented ideologies and policies that were racist, xenophobic and, in the case of Nazism , genocidal.
The Nuremberg Race Laws of prohibited sexual relations between any Aryan and Jew, considering it Rassenschande , "racial pollution". The Nuremberg Laws stripped all Jews, even quarter- and half-Jews second and first degree Mischlings , of their German citizenship. This meant that they had no basic citizens' rights, e. In , Jews were banned from all professional jobs, effectively preventing them from having any influence in education, politics, higher education and industry.
On 15 November , Jewish children were banned from going to normal schools. By April , nearly all Jewish companies had either collapsed under financial pressure and declining profits, or had been persuaded to sell out to the Nazi government. This further reduced their rights as human beings; they were in many ways officially separated from the German populace.
Legislative state racism is known to have been enforced by the National Party of South Africa during its Apartheid regime between and Here a series of Apartheid legislation was passed through the legal systems to make it legal for white South Africans to have rights which were superior to those of non-white South Africans. Non-white South Africans were not allowed involvement in any governing matters, including voting; access to quality healthcare; the provision of basic services, including clean water; electricity; as well as access to adequate schooling.
Non-white South Africans were also prevented from accessing certain public areas, from using certain public transportation and were required to live only in certain designated areas.
Non-white South Africans were taxed differently than white South Africans and they were also required to carry on them at all times additional documentation, which later became known as "dom passes", to certify their non-white South African citizenship. All of these legislative racial laws were abolished through a series of equal human rights laws which were passed at the end of the Apartheid era in the early s.
The current constitution of Liberia , as enacted in , is racist  in its Article 27, because it does not allow non-blacks to become Liberian citizens: Anti-racism includes beliefs, actions, movements, and policies which are adopted or developed in order to oppose racism. In general, it promotes an egalitarian society in which people are not discriminated against on the basis of race.
Movements such as the civil rights movement and the Anti-Apartheid Movement were examples of anti-racist movements. Nonviolent resistance is sometimes embraced as an element of anti-racist movements, although this was not always the case. Hate crime laws, affirmative action , and bans on racist speech are also examples of government policy which is intended to suppress racism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Unconscious racism. This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Please help improve this article if you can. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Racism in the United States. Sociology of race and ethnic relations. Institutional racism , State racism , Racial profiling , and Racism by country. Ethnic nationalism and Romantic nationalism.
Polygenism and Typology anthropology. Belief that humans are subdivided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior. Retrieved December 23, Retrieved 21 February Retrieved 3 February Archived from the original on 26 August If races are defined as genetically discrete groups, no.
But researchers can use some genetic information to group individuals into clusters with medical relevance. Anthropological and historical perspectives on the social construction of race". Accessed December 03, Archived from the original on From the Crusades to the Twentieth Century.
Retrieved 22 February Adopted December , entered into force January Et ubrukelig ord Aftenposten. The History of an Idea in America.
Oxford University Press, Roots, Current Realities, and Future Reparations. The Souls of Black Folk. Portraits of White Racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes". Theoretical and empirical Insights. Handbook of Implicit Social Cognition: Measurement, Theory and Application. Race, Crime, and Visual Processing". Drugs, Crime, and Justice. The Souls of White Folk: African American Writers Theorize Whiteness.
The University Press of Mississippi. Retrieved January 3, Retrieved 28 February Racism and sexual oppression in Anglo-America: Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. In Shaefer, Richard T. Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society. Can't exist by definition, insulting to minority groups". Retrieved February 3, The Social Science Encyclopedia, Volume 2 3rd ed.
Prejudice, Discrimination and Racism. In Olson, James M. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review. In Schaefer, Richard T. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc. Race Is — Race Isn't: Introduction to Sociology Condensed Version 3rd ed. Something rotten in the state of Denmark? A Radical Journal of Geography.
The New York Times. Retrieved December 24, A History of Chicanos 7th ed. Retrieved 20 June Archived September 23, , at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 31 January The American Conquest of the Philippines, — Notes that Rudyard Kipling's new poem, "The White Man's Burden," "is regarded as the strongest argument yet published in favor of expansion.
University of Nebraska Press. Frank Baum's Editorials on the Sioux Nation". Archived from the original on December 9, Full text of both, with commentary by professor A. Social Psychology 7th edition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin.
Modern racism and obedience to authority as explanations for employment discrimination". Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Modern racism, ambivalence, and the modern racism scale. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale. Archived from the original PDF on Geografisk Tidsskrift in Danish.
The idea of national superiority in Central Europe, — European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights. Archived from the original PDF on December 16, Retrieved 22 August The Emperor's new clothes: The Arrogance of Race: Europe — , Nations and Nationalism since Smith , Theories of Nationalism , etc.
A Historical, Theological, and Critical Introduction. Retrieved 4 October Race and slavery in the Middle East: Archived from the original on September 6, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity. Journal of the History of Ideas. The Liberation of Swahili from European Appropriation. East African Literature Bureau. Retrieved 10 June The Journal of North African Studies.
Neither in the Qur'an nor in the Hadith is there any indication of racial difference among humankind. But as a consequence of the Arab conquests, a mutual assimilation between Islam and the cultural and the scriptural traditions of Christian and Jewish populations occurred. Racial distinctions between humankind with reference to the sons of Noah is found in the Babylonian Talmud , a collection of rabbinic writings which dates back to the sixth century.
African origins of the major "Western religions". From The Essays, c. Race and Slavery in the Middle East. Last accessed 27 December Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain. University of Pennsylvania Press. Little, Brown and Company, , p. Los estatutos de Limpieza de Sangre. Encyclopedia of the Jewish diaspora: Tratado sobre las Justas Causas de la Guerra contra los Indios. Archived from the original PDF on 21 April Marriage, Bigamy, and the Spanish Inquisition , http: The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-Three Centuries of Antisemitism 2nd ed.
Chinese descriptions of themselves as a "yellow" race predated European use of such terms. Archived from the original on May 10, Archived from the original on December 10, Archived from the original on January 8, The London and China Telegraph. Poland under Nazi Occupation. Archived from the original on 27 July Europe at War — The policy of Lebensraum was also the product of Nazi racial ideology, which held that the Slavic peoples of the east were inferior to the Aryan race.
Wurttemberg Under the Nazis , Jill Stephenson p. Retrieved 9 August The Great Class War — Formac Publishing Company Limited. Hitler's Plans for Eastern Europe. Poland Under Nazi Occupation First ed. Archived from the original Paperback on Retrieved March 12, Hitler's Ostkrieg and the Indian Wars: Comparing Genocide and Conquest. University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved December 7, Encyclopedia of Minorities in American Politics: African Americans and Asian Americans.
Burma — Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. Retrieved 16 November A Reformer on the Throne: Asians given 90 days to leave Uganda. Retrieved 11 September Archived March 16, , at the Wayback Machine. Fair elections haunted by racial imbalance". Archived from the original on 10 November Why ethnic Chinese are afraid". Xenophobia against Chinese on the rise in Africa. Racist moves will rebound on Tonga".
The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved November 4, Archived 9 July at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 21 April From Immigration to Emigration. The Australian National University. Retrieved 6 March Sugrue, Sweet Land of Liberty: New York, , pp. Segregation and the Making of the Underclass.
Archived from the original on August 27, Essays on the Image of the Black in Germany , Boston: Speeches, Letters, and Miscellaneous Writings: Archived from the original on September 30, Michael Joseph, Penguin Group. L'Anthropologie de Georges Vacher de Lapouge: The funding of scientific racism: Wickliffe Draper and the Pioneer Fund.
University of Illinois Press. Lay summary 4 September Le Monde diplomatique in French. Coalitional computation and social categorization" PDF. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The authors provide a summary and other comments at " untitled ". Issue , 17 March Journal of Conflict Resolution. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.
Volume 1 London, UK: The Invention of the White Race: Volume 2 London, UK: Institute of European History , , retrieved: The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c.
Daniels, Jessie , Cyber Racism: A Theory of Oppression , Routledge: Princeton University Press Lentin, Alana. A Beginner's Guide Oxford: University of Minnesota Press. Smedley, Audrey; Smedley, Brian D. Race in North America: Origins and Evolution of a World View. Stoler, Ann Laura Political Power and Social Theory. Bettina Wohlgemuth May Racism in the 21st century: Links to related articles. Anti-miscegenation laws Expression in the media in Charles Dickens' works in music in early US films Censored Eleven in horror films in porn online on Wikipedia in sport baseball martial arts soccer in school curricula in US politics Jokes Slurs Racial antagonism Racial determinism Racial hatred Racial hierarchy Casta Racial polarization Racial quota Racial vilification Racial violence Race war.
Segregation in countries by type in some countries, categories overlap. Desegregation busing Pillarisation Category caste gender racial Commons. Indigenous and minority rights. Ancestral domain Free, prior and informed consent Intellectual property Land rights Language Self-determination in Australia in Canada in the United States Traditional knowledge ecological medical Treaty rights. Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland. North America South America. Dependencies and other territories.
Book Category Asia portal. Retrieved from " https: Racism Discrimination Hatred Politics and race. Articles with Norwegian-language external links Articles with inconsistent citation formats Webarchive template wayback links Articles with French-language external links CS1 Danish-language sources da CS1 French-language sources fr CS1 errors: Julian—Gregorian uncertainty Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from May Articles with incomplete citations from December All articles with incomplete citations Wikipedia pages under editing restriction Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages Articles needing cleanup from July All pages needing cleanup Cleanup tagged articles with a reason field from July Wikipedia pages needing cleanup from July All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Articles with unsourced statements from January Wikipedia articles with BNF identifiers Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers Wikipedia articles with NARA identifiers Wikipedia articles with NDL identifiers.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Racism.
In Jungian psychology, the term racial unconscious denotes unconscious psychic material, present in a person from birth, common to humankind and accumulated by the experience of all preceding generations.
User: The term racial unconscious means that Weegy: The term racial unconscious or collective unconscious means: the inherited part of the unconscious that especially in the psychoanalytic theory of C. G. Jung occurs in and is shared by all the members of a people or race. User: If a story took place on another planet, it would most likely be a .
The term racial unconscious means that A. we're all prejudiced to some degree, even though we're unaware of it. B. you must learn the law of club and fang to survive. C. each species and culture share ancient memories, stored in the unconscious part of the mind. D. nature weeds out the weakest and unfit. What does the term racial unconscious mean? Get the answers you need, now!/5(3).
Novel. posted by Anonymous Thursday, September 4, at pm 1. The term racial unconscious means that A. nature weeds out the weakest and unfit. B. you must learn the law of club and fang to survive. Racial unconscious definition: psychology → another term for collective unconscious | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples.