Log In Join for Free. Support for Science Buddies provided by:. Key Info Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography. Most teachers want you to have at least three written sources of information.
Write down, photocopy, or print the following information for each source you find. You can use the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet to help you. Collect this information for each printed source: Collect this information for each Web Site: Overview A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project.
Examples of Bibliography Formats There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use. On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines: Sample Bibliographies Sample Bibliography: If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources.
Reproduction of material from this website without written permission is strictly prohibited. Then write the newspaper's name and the day, month and year of the issue.
Finally, you write the page number of the article. Write a bibliographic entry for a magazine article by stating with the writer's name, last name first. You follow it with the article title, the publication name, the date of publication and the page or pages the article is on. Write website citations by listing the a writer, if identified. The bibliographic entry begins with his name, last name first. If your source is a specific page or article on the website, write its title.
Then write the name of the website and the site's sponsor. If available, write the date the page or article was uploaded and the date you accessed it. This is important as it is so easy for things to change on the Internet.
For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference. The publisher's name is normally on a book's main title page, and often on the book's spine too.
Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Look at the ways in which your sources use references in their own work, and for further guidance consult the companion guide Avoiding Plagiarism.
There are many different referencing conventions in common use. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'. This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. Once you have understood the principles common to all referencing systems you should be able to apply the specific rules set by your own department.
In the 'author, date' system often referred to as the 'Harvard' system very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text. Full details of the source are then given in a reference list or bibliography at the end of the text. As the name suggests, the citation in the text normally includes the name s surname only of the author s and the date of the publication. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text.
The seminars that are often a part of humanities courses can provide opportunities for students to develop the communication and interpersonal skills that are valued by employers Lyon, The text reference above indicates to the reader that the point being made draws on a work by Lyon, published in An alternative format is shown in the example below.
Knapper and Cropley Note that in this example reference has been made to a specific point within a very long text in this instance a book and so a page number has been added. This gives the reader the opportunity to find the particular place in the text where the point referred to is made.
You should always include the page number when you include a passage of direct quotation from another writer's work. When a publication has several authors , it is usual to give the surname of the first author followed by et al. Do not forget that you should also include reference to the source of any tables of data, diagrams or maps that you include in your work.
If you have included a straight copy of a table or figure, then it is usual to add a reference to the table or figure caption thus:.
Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture.
The format for the text citation is normally exactly the same as for a published work and should give the speaker's name and the date of the presentation. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, If the idea or information that you wish to cite has been told to you personally, perhaps in a discussion with a lecturer or a tutor, it is normal to reference the point as shown in the example below.
A bibliography or list of works cited enables readers of your essay or research paper to find your sources for quotes and facts, thus providing your arguments and conclusions greater validity. A bibliography also gives your readers a place to begin their own research.
Writing a bibliography is easy by following the format outlined in this article. Learn how to properly cite different resources in the bibliography of a research paper, and how to format those citations, for books, encyclopedias, films, websites, and people. numerous examples and explanations for all source types.
Bibliography for the essay (a.k.a. Reference list or Works Cited) is an essential part of the paper. It is not enough just to express a certain idea with the help of your own words. Quite often it is necessary to resort to the use of outside sources. Just three quick steps and you have an annotated bibliography! If you need a quick way to remember the steps in writing an annotated bibliography, just remember CSE: Cite, Summarize, Evaluate. Putting It All Together. Writing your annotated bibliography in small steps can make a .
Make a list to keep track of ALL the books, magazines, and websites you read as you follow your background research plan. Later this list of sources will become your bibliography. Most teachers want you to have at least three written sources of information. Write down, photocopy, or print the following information for each source you find. A bibliography is an alphabetized list of sources that have been used to compile data, typically in an article, essay, or research paper. This list is found at the end of the work and allows the person reviewing the data to verify the veracity of the statements and/or figures presented in the data itself.