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Marburg, the First Known Filovirus

❶Transmission of Ebola virus Zaire strain to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory. The next stage is death.

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For your next research paper, you can focus your topic on the Ebola virus itself or health in third world countries.

In previous outbreaks of Ebola, about 90 percent of those infected die. There is no vaccine or cure for the highly infectious disease. This most recent outbreak of the Ebola virus is believed to have originated in late or early in Guinea in West Africa. After a period when it looked like the virus was slowing down, it gained momentum again and even spread to the capital of Liberia for the first time.

Because Ebola often touches remote areas and the first cases sometimes go unrecognized, it is likely that there are deaths that go uncounted during outbreaks.

This region of West Africa, particularly the countries of Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone where the Ebola virus has hit hardest, has a long history of adhering to their own traditional medicine and a wariness of outside medical assistance. The fear of health officials is most likely only adding to the severity of the epidemic. Reports indicate that many of the sick are being hidden and buried without any protection to prevent further spread of the disease. And not even the doctors themselves are immune or safe.

The lead doctor fighting Ebola in Sierra Leone has died of the disease, and two other American doctors working in Liberia have tested positive for the disease.

Want to learn more about third world health? Check out Questia —particularly the section on Ebola. Is it only a matter of time before a deadly virus like Ebola, or Ebola itself, spreads around the world?

Antiviral drugs also show promise in experimental infections [ 91 ]. The expense of preclinical and early clinical work would be justified by the potential commercial use of the drug against RSV, while the efficacy against Ebola virus would provide an alternate model to demonstrate broad-spectrum preclinical efficacy. The epidemic in Kikwit posed certain serious problems. The medical infrastructure was poor to begin with and suffered greatly from the epidemic. Because of fear and of stigmatization, new cases were cared for at home and often in secrecy.

It became urgent to rehabilitate the medical infrastructure and to convince patients to come to the hospital, where they could be isolated and their families could be observed. This contrasts with the outbreaks, which occurred in villages where leaders enforced quarantine in local houses.

This action, combined with the collapse of the medical care system, effectively ended the epidemics. The importance of the medical care facility in amplifying the spread of Ebola virus is emphasized by the fact that only the hospitals in Kikwit and Mosango, DRC, had extensive transmission: We do not know if Ebola virus transmission would have continued indefinitely, burrowed into the massof people in the city, if measures to begin hospital use had not succeeded.

In any case, the infection of health care workers [ 69 , 55 ] ended with the arrival of proper patient-isolation supplies and training in barrier-nursing techniques [ 55 , 69 , 92 ]. The coordination of medical logistics and plans for rational triage of the patients were key in the effort [ 93 , 94 ]. The lesson is obvious: The hospital is the link that must be strengthened.

This will require both money and training, but the improvements will be useful in preventing many other infections, including those with hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses. How this might occur without marked economic and cultural changes is not clear; despite intensive training, health care workers in Kikwit abandoned most of the improvements in medical hygiene within 3 months of the end of the epidemic, due in part to a lack of supplies and a reversion to previous practices.

Unfortunately, the massive aid that comes with emergencies does not continue in reduced form to help prevent future emergencies. Surveillance is also a problem. The case definition that was adopted was accurate in the epidemic setting, but it would be much less so in sporadic infections or at the beginning of an epidemic [ 69 ]. The finding of copious amounts of Ebola virus antigen in skin opened the way to confirm cases by taking simple skin biopsies, which could be placed in formalin and analyzed later by immunohistochemistry [ 53 , 92 ].

This obviates the need for cold chain or special precautions while processing or shipping infectious material. One could argue that Ebola diagnostics should be placed at many sites in the potentially endemic areas, but this may be unrealistic given the small number of expected cases and the economics.

Such tests could be devised on the basis of antigen detection on paper strips [ 27 , 27a ], but the logistics of production, distribution, quality control, and shelf-life considerations are formidable. It would seem that laboratory capability for diagnosing common diseases, such as shigellosis or typhoid, would be much more practical as a first step. This would also make it easier to sort out which patients to suspect for Ebola virus infection, remembering that the initial diagnosis of the epidemic in Kikwit was bloody diarrhea until clinicians suspected otherwise weeks later [ 95 ].

Thus, the algorithm proposed by Lloyd et al. If a patient dies, as the majority of humans infected with EBO-Z do, a skin biopsy is obtained and sent for analysis. Today, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is the main site for analysis, but as demand builds, the technology can be transferred to regional centers.

The delay in definitive diagnosis is not the problem one might anticipate. The protocol calls for barrier nursing to begin at once, thus decreasing the chance of spread. In the Kikwit outbreak, almost 5 months passed from the beginning of the outbreak until the first samples were obtained. The ability to obtain a skin sample safely and without cold chain problems should encourage more use of this technique and may well give an earlier warning.

What information is needed to deal with Ebola virus? The major questions are tied to important issues in biology. For example, how will we be able to elucidate the natural reservoir without intensive studies of the many animals resident in the tropical forest? Do we really have a viable hypothesis as to the true reservoir?

Certainly we would put bats high on our list of suspects [ 77 ], but should we do this to the exclusion of other species [ 74 ]? Very little is known about the virology of Ebola. For example, this agent has less than a dozen genes, compared with the expansive genomes of poxviruses or herpesviruses. How does it accomplish its task of natural maintenance and also cause disease in humans? The virus appears to be relatively refractory to the antiviral effects of interferon [ 75 ], but the mechanism is unknown.

Recent studies have shown that the virus inhibits gene induction by interferons and double-stranded RNA in endothelial cells, effects that could be relevant to pathogenesis [ 96 ].

We have no structural studies of the virus that could yield information on the function of some of the unmapped genes. Additional knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the virus and its proteins could be helpful in designing inhibitors of the fusion process [ 97 ] and of the polymerase. The clinical description of the disease is still incomplete, due in part to the lack of infrastructure during epidemics and the difficult and dangerous circumstances.

For example, does pancreatitis contribute to the demise of patients [ 36 ]? What are the variations in clinical pathology findings?

Much additional work on the virology and immunology remains. Finally, we need a pre-planned response team that is already integrated, prepared to execute selected functions, and equipped.

This team may have to wait 20 years for the next epidemic; however, its chance to respond may come much sooner. Most of the known information on filoviruses can be found in Marburg Virus Disease [4] , Ebola Virus Haemorrhagic Fever [13] , and this supplement. Marburg and Ebola Viruses [98] has just been published and contains, but is not limited to, particularly good summaries of recent work on the molecular biology of filoviruses.

Much of the Russian literature has never been properly surveyed and synthesized in the English language. This supplement contains reviews of Russian work on antibody therapy [ 85 ] and pathogenesis [ 99 ], and other information on pathogenesis [ ] and vaccine immunology is available [ ]. We gratefully acknowledge the work of the many field and laboratory investigators who contributed their original findings to manuscripts included in this supplement, especially to those who delayed publication so that their work might be shared in this compendium of recent research.

We also recognize the many other dedicated individuals not included in the author lines who participated in many different ways in the international responses to the Kikwit and other outbreaks, especially those whose lives were lost while assisting in the epidemic responses and caring for the sick or dead.

Finally, we thank the editorial board and the staff of the Journal of Infectious Diseases , especially Donna Mirkes and Claudia Chesley, for their patience and hard work. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.

Marburg, the First Known Filovirus. Ebola, the Second Known Filovirus. An Introduction to Ebola: The Virus and the Disease C. Marburg, the First Known Filovirus Biomedical science first encountered the virus family Filoviridae when Marburg virus appeared in [ 4 ]. Ebola, the Second Known Filovirus Humans Meet Ebola Virus in Africa, In the late s, the international community was again startled, this time by the discovery of Ebola virus [ 10 ] as the causative agent of major outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in the Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC [ 11 ] and Sudan [ 12 ].

Ebola Virus Visits the United States: EBO-Z, Kikwit, DRC, The description of the large African EHF outbreaks in was largely based on retrospective information, so the Kikwit epidemic provided a better opportunity for more detailed investigations while the epidemic was in progress.

Clinical disease The clinical syndrome seen among patients in Kikwit resembled that seen in [ 13 , 11 ], but bleeding was less common and other significant findings were identified, as reported by Bwaka et al. Epidemiology and surveillance The presence of the international teams allied with several organizations from the DRC during the end of the epidemic provided an opportunity for several studies to better define the transmission of Ebola virus among humans.

Ecology and natural history The epidemic also provided an opportunity to search for the elusive reservoir of Ebola virus in connection with an acute outbreak. Virology and pathogenesis Ksiazek et al. Experimental therapy Fortunately, there are examples of provocative new findings that may provide therapy for filovirus infections. Control, response, and prevention The epidemic in Kikwit posed certain serious problems.

Information for the Future What information is needed to deal with Ebola virus? Acknowledgments We gratefully acknowledge the work of the many field and laboratory investigators who contributed their original findings to manuscripts included in this supplement, especially to those who delayed publication so that their work might be shared in this compendium of recent research.

The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing.

Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of Ebola viruses causing different outbreaks in Gabon. Epidemiologic investigation of Marburg virus disease, southern Africa, Characterization of a new Marburg virus isolated from a fatal case in Kenya. Isolation and characterization of a new virus Ebola virus causing acute hemorrhagic fever in Zaire. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Zaire, Report of an international commission. Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Sudan, Ebola hemorrhagic fever in southern Sudan: Ebola subtype Reston virus among quarantined nonhuman primates recently imported from the Philippines to the United States.

Outbreak of fatal illness among captive macaques in the Philippines caused by an Ebola-related filovirus. Pathogenic potential of filoviruses: Enzyme immunosorbent assay for Ebola virus antigens in tissues of infected primates. Detection of Marburg and Ebola virus infections by polymerase chain reaction assays. Clinical virology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever EHF: Detection and molecular characterization of Ebola viruses causing disease in human and nonhuman primates.

Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Zaire. Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in Gabon, — Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with Ebola virus in a naturally infected chimpanzee.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Late ophthalmologic manifestations in survivors of the Ebola virus epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Clinical, virologic, and immunologic follow-up of convalescent Ebola hemorrhagic fever patients and their household contacts, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Isolated case of Ebola hemorrhagic fever with mucormycosis complications, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever with blood transfusions from convalescent patients.

Experimental infection of cynomolgus macaques with Ebola-Reston filoviruses from the — US epizootic. Persistence and genetic stability of Ebola virus during the outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, A novel immunohistochemical assay for detection of Ebola virus in skin: Transmission of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Serologic survey among hospital and health center workers during the Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lethal experimental infections of rhesus monkeys by aerosolized Ebola virus.

Transmission of Ebola virus Zaire strain to uninfected control monkeys in a biocontainment laboratory. Effects of some physical and chemical factors on inactivation of Ebola virus [in Russian]. Retention of Marburg virus infecting capability on contaminated surfaces and in aerosol particles [in Russian].

Clinical and virological characterization of the disease in guinea pigs aerogenically infected with Marburg virus. The influence of the methods of experimental infection with Marburg virus on the features of the disease process in green monkeys [in Russian]. Management of patients infected with high-hazard viruses: Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Lethal experimental infection of rhesus monkeys with Ebola-Zaire Mayinga virus by the oral and conjunctival route of exposure.

American Committee on Arthropod-Borne Viruses. The reemergence of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Field investigations of an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ecology of Marburg and Ebola viruses: Lack of virus replication in arthropods after intrathoracic inoculation of Ebola Reston virus.

Identification of a new North American hantavirus that causes acute pulmonary insufficiency. Preparation and use of hyperimmune serum for prophylaxis and therapy of Ebola virus infections. Passive immunization of Ebola virus—infected cynomolgus monkeys with immunoglobulin from hyperimmune horses.

Marburg virus vaccines based upon alphavirus replicons protect guinea pigs and nonhuman primates. Antiviral drug therapy of filovirus infections: S -adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitors inhibit Ebola virus in vitro and in a lethal mouse model.

Long-term disease surveillance in Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Interventions to control virus transmission during an outbreak of Ebola hemorrhagic fever: Organization of patient care during the Ebola hemorrhagic fever epidemic in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ebola outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo: Ebola virus inhibits induction of genes by double-stranded RNA in endothelial cells.

Similar structural models of the transmembrane proteins of Ebola and avian sarcoma viruses [letter]. An analysis of features of pathogenesis in two animal models of Ebola virus infection. Email alerts New issue alert.

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John Connor and Emily Speranza detected a response in interferon-stimulated genes four days before Ebola symptoms emerged. They published their findings in Science Translational Medicine.

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Ebola research papers examine the symptoms and origin of the destructive disease. Ebola research papers discuss the emergence of this disease in the world today. Paper Masters has researchers that write on Ebola and other medical health diseases. Specifically, the following objectives are pursued: To undertake Ebola outbreak appraisal under Africa and other countries in the World, and their trends and structural growth in Nigeria, West Africa and Africa countries; To examine the determinants of Ebola outbreak within the demographic context of Africa; To assess the in-depth impact of Ebola outbreak and its adverse effect on the demography of Africa.

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Jan 20,  · Research Paper on Ebola Virus During the Dark Ages a plague swept through Asia and Europe killing millions of people, at the time it was unstoppable with a unique set of hosts. The plague, later named The Black Death* became one of the greatest catastrophes humanity has ever witnessed. Research Papers on the Ebola Virus Outbreak Ebola Virus Outbreak research papers examine the recent outbreak of the Ebola virus in West Africa and the first outbreak in the United States. Research papers on the Ebola virus outbreak look at where the virus began and the countries that contain the virus.