The Americas' population now consists of a mixture of peoples originating from all continents except Australia. That demographic shift of the last years—the most massive shift on any continent except Australia—has its ultimate roots in developments between about 11, B.
I would say to Yali: It remains an open question how wide and lasting the effects of idiosyncratic individuals on history really are. Sign In Sign Up. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does.
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LitCharts From the creators of SparkNotes, something better. Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond. Download this Lit Guide! LitCharts assigns a color and icon to each theme in Guns, Germs, and Steel , which you can use to track the themes throughout the work. Related Themes from Other Texts. Compare and contrast themes from other texts to this theme…. How often theme appears: Page Number and Citation: Plus so much more Retrieved September 13, Download this Chart PDF.
They're like having in-class notes for every discussion! Get the Teacher Edition. My students love how organized the handouts are and enjoy tracking the themes as a class. Which guides should we add? One reason is that some geographic explanations advanced a century ago were racist, thereby causing all geographic explanations to become tainted by racist associations in the minds of many scholars other than geographers. But many genetic, historical, psychological, and anthropological explanations advanced a century ago were also racist, yet the validity of newer non-racist genetic etc.
A third reason is that geographic explanations usually depend on detailed technical facts of geography and other fields of scholarship: A Hadza woman foraging while carrying her grandchild.
One reason old people are considered valuable in traditional societies is that they serve as care-givers and food-producers to their grandchildren. At the opposite extreme, the Inuit and other traditional peoples living north of the Arctic Circle developed warm fur clothes but no agriculture, while equatorial lowland peoples around the world never developed warm fur clothes but often did develop agriculture. The explanation is straightforwardly geographic, rather than a cultural or historical quirk unrelated to geography.
Within Europe, England and France and Spain and Portugal founded worldwide colonial empires but Switzerland and Poland and Greece did not, because of equally straightforward geographic reasons: Robinson similarly challenge scholars like Barrington Moore who hold that certain factor endowments and agricultural preconditions necessarily lead to particular political and economic organizations. They favored smallholders, held elections, maintained small militaries, and fought fewer wars. Other states like El Salvador and Guatemala produced coffee on plantations, where individuals were more disenfranchised.
Whether a state became a smallholder or plantation state depended not on factor endowments but on norms established under colonialism —namely, legal statues determining access to land, the background of the governing elites, and the degree of permitted political competition. Historians have also noted population densities seem to concentrate on coastlines and that states with large coasts benefit from higher average incomes compared to those in landlocked countries.
Coastal living has proven advantageous for centuries as civilizations relied on the coastline and waterways for trade, irrigation, and as a food source. They also have to rely on costly and time consuming over-land trade, which usually results in lack of access to regional and international markets, further hindering growth.
Additionally, interior locations tend to have both lower population densities and labor-productivity levels. However, factors including fertile soil, nearby rivers, and ecological systems suited for rice or wheat cultivation can give way to dense inland populations.
Nathan Nunn and Diego Puga note that though rugged terrain usually makes farming difficult, prevents travel, and limits societal growth, early African states used harsh terrain to their advantage.
The results suggest that historically, ruggedness is strongly correlated with decreased income levels across the globe and has negatively impacted state growth over time. They note that harsh terrain limited the flow of trade goods and decreased crop availability, while isolating communities from developing knowledge capital.
However, the study also demonstrated that the terrain had positive effects on some African communities by protecting them from the slave trade.
Communities that were located in areas with rugged features could successfully hide from slave traders and protect their homes from being destroyed.
The study found that in these areas rugged topography produced long-term economic benefits and aided post-colonial state formation. The impact that climate and water navigability have on economic growth and GDP per capita was studied by notable scholars including Paul Krugman , Jared Diamond , and Jeffrey Sachs.
To do so, they measure economic growth with GDP per capita adjusted to purchasing power parity PPP , while also taking into consideration population density and labor productivity. Economic historians have found that societies in the Northern Hemisphere experience higher standards of living, and that as latitude increases north or south from the equator, levels of real GDP per capita also increases.
Climate is closely correlated with agricultural production since without ideal weather conditions, agriculture alone will not produce the surplus supply needed to build and maintain economies.
Locations with hot tropical climates often suffer underdevelopment due to low fertility of soils, excessive plant transpiration, ecological conditions favoring infectious diseases, and unreliable water supply. They are also an economic drain on society due to high medical costs, and the unwillingness of foreign capital to invest in a sickly state.
Because infectious diseases like malaria often need a warm ecology for growth, states in the mid to high latitudes are naturally protected from the devastating effects of disease. Climatic determinism, otherwise referred to as the equatorial paradox, is an aspect of economic geography. The theory is the central argument of Philip M. The Basis for Long-Run Economic Growth , in which he argues that since humans originated as tropical mammals, those who relocated to colder climates attempt to restore their physiological homeostasis through wealth-creation.
This act includes producing more food, better housing, heating, warm clothes, etc. Conversely, humans that remained in warmer climates are more physiologically comfortable simply due to temperature, and so have less incentive to work to increase their comfort levels.
Therefore, according to Parker GDP is a direct product of the natural compensation of humans to their climate. Political geographers have used climatic determinism ideology to attempt to predict and rationalize the history of civilization, as well as to explain existing or perceived social and cultural divides between peoples.
Some argue that one of the first attempts geographers made to define the development of human geography across the globe was to relate a country's climate to human development. Using this ideology, many geographers believed they were able "to explain and predict the progress of human societies".
Ellsworth Huntington also travelled continental Europe in hopes of better understanding the connection between climate and state success, publishing his findings in The Pulse of Asia , and further elaborating in Civilization and Climate.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Geographic determinism. Impact of Western European colonialism and colonisation. Guns, Germs, and Steel. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control.
Key concepts in political geography pp. Allyn Rickett , in Guanzi: A Study and Translation. Princeton University Press, p. Conceptions of Plague and Pestilence in Early Islam". Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. Key Debates in African American Studies. Retrieved 27 November Key concepts in political geography pg A History of the Paradigmatic Colonial Science.
The Wealth and Poverty of Nations: Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. International Regional Science Review Journal of Archaeological Science. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Journal of Economic Literature. Coercion, Capital, and European States, A.
States and Power in Africa. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian Economy —
The term “geographic determinism” is used by many scholars as a pejorative, to justify the quick dismissal of a proposed geographic interpretation of a human phenomenon. For example, the charge of geographic determinism is occasionally leveled at my book Guns, Germs, and Steel.
Geographical determinism definition at buycoumadin.gq, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Environmental determinism is the belief that the physical environment affects social and cultural development. This school of thought can be traced back to ancient Greek times but did not become. One that received much prominence in geographic history but has declined in recent decades of academic study is environmental determinism. What Is Environmental Determinism? Environmental determinism is the belief that the environment (most notably its physical factors such as landforms and/or climate) determines the patterns of .
Frank Davey defines geographical determinism as "a belief that the landscape has or should have--effects on the personalities and perspectives of its inhabitants, [and] leads to the assumption that these effects should have greater importance to the individual than do other possible grounds of identity" (5). Here again geography played favourites. Eurasia had a lot of largish animals that people could try to domesticate, whereas in the Americas and Australasia almost all large animals that might have been domesticated became extinct at the end of the ice age.