Determinists think that no matter how hard you try to will still be in the right time in the place you are supposed to be to meet you future.
A human being turns out to be a go-between the nature and accomplishment of its will. It completely deprives people from having free will for doing anything is their lives.
The controlling forces that leave us with no will is not represented by nature, but also our heredity and environment as the key factor of the formations of the personality of a man. Through heredity we get aptitudes and abilities that do put us on a certain path and are complemented with the influence of the environment.
The reader is given bare facts and decides himself what way he is going to interpret them. Everything is depicted very realistically, with accuracy peculiar only to science. Science has a very big influence on naturalism since it is so closely connected with nature and many things are presented through science terms nowadays.
The more science develops the more naturalism has a base for its own development because it gets support and the acknowledgement of its main principles.
Therefore naturalism in literature has a very strong background and though some moments tend to be contradictional, especially the matter concerning its connection with determinism and not having the opportunity to make a choice. Outer forces that catch him from the very beginning and continue carrying him till the end influence him enormously. Naturalism attains its peak throughout this influence.
Outer forces in the novel are represented by three main factors: These three forces determine the whole life of the main character Bigger. They become vital and the most important factors influencing his life. Biological forces are represented by his color of skin and genetic code that transmitted certain abilities to Bigger.
Environmental forces are represented by the situation and atmosphere of racism he lived in, people who surrounded him, ideas that were appealing to him, the values that he got from his family and so on. The right to reform is something he had no idea about, something that was not even set in his consciousness, and something he was not taught to use. The combination of these three forces makes a very strong integration whose influence is no way to be tolerated by a human being.
The structure of the novel corresponds to its genre; even in it the naturalistic influence is obvious. The novel consists of three books: Fear, Fight and Fate.
Fear - is the fear of white people, the fear of being nothing and being worth of nothing in this life. Fight - is an attempt to do something, to do something to acquire the sense of wholeness. And finally Fate — is what cannot be escaped and what all the black people in had in common. Being black was hard because it automatically lead you to the life in poverty and hopelessness.
It determined ones life completely for the very birth till the last breathe. The enviroment Bigger lived in was cruel. Richard Wright was a man that had no doubts in protesting the treatment black American got form the white people. Their racist persecutions by the Ku Klux Klan and by other racist organizations, the living conditions they found themselves in such as the impossibility to find a decent job and the obligation to pay a high rent influenced the lives of the afro-Americans a lot.
It is not just book about survival in the conditions of harsh racism it is a book of growing up in an alien world, a world where a black person was not considered to be equal and was humiliated. Bigger kills and through it he acquires the sense of self-importance:. It must've been pretty deep in me to make me kill! I must have felt it awful hard to murder What I killed for must've been good!
When a man kills, it's for something I didn't know I was really alive in this world until I felt things hard enough to kill for 'em. Only at the end of the book Bigger changes a bit his view on the white-and- black relationship. Effective learning also depends upon sensory experiences. Sense training is essential as senses are means to accumulate knowledge. It discards bookish knowledge because nature is the best book and child learns everything in the lap of nature. Thus, nature is the spring of all knowledge.
Thus, they say education should be the chief instrument to exploit instincts to change the behaviour of the child in a desirable manner.
Happiness is the summum bonum of life. He regards that instincts are the true bases of human conduct. Education as such aims at re-direction and sublimation of instincts for achieving socially desirable ends. It is based upon the psychology of the child. The naturalists do not advocate a rigid and d curriculum.
The child is given no verbal lessons and is against bookish education. He is expected to learn directly from nature through personal experiences. Agriculture, Gardening, Art and Craft, Botany, Geography, Geology, Astronomy on the plea that these are in keeping with the nature of the child. So, these are to be included in the curriculum framework.
As such the naturalists want to include History and Social Studies for transmission of past experiences that enrich the present and teach morals to the children. So, there is no place for teaching about God and religion. Darwin, the originator of evolutionary theory, emphasized that the aim of education is to equip the individual to struggle for existence and thus to ensure his survival. Lamarck, while coinciding the views of Darwin, adds that education should aim at enabling e individual to adjust himself to the environment and circumstances both physically and mentally.
Rousseau, a staunch advocate of naturalism, says that the central aim of education is le autonomous development of personality. Other naturalists also say that education should aim at providing every possible opportunities for the development of natural endowments and propensities of the child.
Nunn advocates that the supreme aim of education is the development of individuality because the proper goal of human life is perfection of individual. The aim of education, according to R.
Tagore, is to make the child free in the nature environment for full-flowering of his personality. Herbert Spencer, an extreme naturalist, suggested complete living aim which encompasses self-preservation, securing necessities of life, up-bringing of children, training in citizenship, happiness and proper utilization of leisure profitably.
He wants that activities should be undertaken which minister self-preservation. Therefore, Naturalism is weak in providing a complete aim of education.
It does not lay down nobler aims like idealists, because they lack objectivities and realities. It does not believe in speculation. As aims of education are dear to idealistic education, so are the methods of teaching to naturalistic education. Naturalistic discard all traditional, archaic, rigid and stereo- type methods of teaching.
Instead of emphasizing direct method of teaching through lecture or text-books, naturalists preferred learning by doing for gaining direct and first hand experiences. All knowledge must emerge out of actual situation and experience. In the study of language, direct methods of teaching are advocated to ensure the command of students upon the vocabulary. In the teaching of science observation, experimentation and heuristic method in place of chalk and talk method are to be strictly followed.
Geometry should be taught by practical exercises in place of arguments and problems in text books like surveying the play ground, finding the height of the school etc. Similarly, history and geography should be taught to the children through living with nature and observation e. Play way is a staple method of naturalistic education. Learning is to be acquired by the method of play in supportive spirit. It is play which helps the child to express himself fully to be creative and to acquire confidence for manipulating objects and for learning skills.
Play helps the child to reveal his nature in a natural way. Child does all creative works through play. So, it is the gateway to creativity and pleasure.
Besides play-way, other methods like Montessori method, Kindergarten method, Dalton plan or activity method etc. Learning while walking is the best method. Naturalism supports open-air school for natural development of children. Thus unbridled freedom is essential for such development of children. Since naturalists deprecate unnatural classroom method whereby all children learn at the same place by the same method, didactic or coercive methods are not permitted.
Therefore auto- education is suggested which emphasizes that the effort of the child is the care of education. Freedom is the watchword of naturalism. Naturalists give utmost freedom to the child to do and learn whatever he likes and it helps the child to grow in a natural way. Herbert Spencer and J. J Rousseau favored discipline through natural consequences. They assert that whenever a child goes wrong, natural reaction is proper punishment for him which acts as a says that warning must be given at each stage.
John Dewey opines that if a person cannot see the consequences of his act and is not capable of understanding what he is told about its outcome, it is desired not to permit him to experiment and to discover the consequences for himself in order that he may act intelligently next time under similar circumstances. He should understand the child—his nature, tendencies, impulses, interests etc. Therefore, he should not interfere in the natural development of the child. The child knows better what, where and how he should learn.
So, according to naturalism, a teacher is only a stage setter, a supplier of materials and opportunities, creator of conducive, environment for the full blooming of natural development of the child. He should create conditions for harnessing of expressions in various ways. He should be patient, permissive and non-intrusive.
He is an invisible guide to learning. He should not lay stress upon books, recitations and massing information in literary form, rather he should give premium on activity, exploration and learning by doing. Under naturalistic setting, no importance is given to the formal institution and text books. School is a place where child gets full freedom and it provides a barrage of facilities to cater to the needs and interests of the children in one hand and to further the development of children in natural way.
The chief contribution of naturalism lies in freedom which is essential for natural development and self-expression of children. Child study movement has gathered momentum due to the naturalistic ideas and principles. The importance of child is given top priority in the present day curriculum.
Child centred education sprouts from the naturalistic system of education. Punishment is abolished and in its place, is given full scale opportunities to children in modern day educational system all over the globe to actualize their potentialities which are innate. Teacher is regarded as a friend, philosopher and guide.
- Naturalism in Jack London's "To Build a Fire" This essay has problems with format When Jack London wrote "To Build a Fire" he embraced the idea of naturalism because it mirrored the events of daily life.
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