I continued to ask myself a series of questions which enabled me to reflect on what I did and why I did it. Although I may not be able to find a solution to my critical incident, I aim to explore and analyse it by reflecting on my teaching practice. Dewey in Pollard highlights that reflective practice enables teachers to constantly monitor, assess and review their own practice which allows teachers to learn from what they have done and develop in their professional skills. This form of analysis allows one to continuously ask questions: Moreover, Tripp points out that when we ask questions, our ideas or actions can create either some form of reification or a normative statement which underpins a subjective point of view based on personal beliefs and opinions.
With regards to the critical incident which took place between child x and I, I had to explore why I expected him to put his hands up to answer my questions? I expected that all children should put their hand up during class discussions because my former experiences in the classroom led me to the assumption that it was the norm for children to do so.
On the other hand, current research and ideas have opposed to children putting their hands up in class. Professor Dylan William The Telegraph, advocates that asking children to put their hands up isolates other students during class discussion.
However, School X highlights that no child is excluded and that they are all encouraged to move toward their full potential School Policy Moreover, my beliefs and opinions led me to believe that all children should put their hands up and must not shout out in the class which led to a dilemma that I encountered during my teaching. Dilemma Identification Tripp conveys that incidents contain dilemmas that teachers are frequently confronted with.
In his reading, Tripp recommends Berlak and Berlak as they propose that the great stress in teaching is having to make decisions throughout their teaching career. Pollard continues that teachers use their professional judgement to determine the most suitable form of action to take in any particular situation.
During my critical incident at SEA , I found myself in a predicament when child x constantly shouted out in class. My immediate response was to have him sit next to the teaching assistant. My reason for placing child x with the teaching assistant, was because English is an additional language for him, therefore, I thought that it would be easier to place with an additional adult that spoke the same language as him.
Nonetheless, reflecting back on this critical incident, there were many alternative routes that I could have taken rather than moving child x. I could have given him a warning to ensure that he was aware that I would not tolerate his disruptive behaviour. Moreover, I could have removed child x from the classroom in order for me to continue with my lesson.
Nevertheless, being faced with a dilemma does not allow much time to contemplate, particularly within a class of 28 pupils. The series of dilemmas that I was confronted with was a emanding experience which I expressed within my reflective journal: Upon reflection of my dilemma, I made a decision based on my values.
My personal beliefs and values encouraged me to make the decision to move child x nearer to another adult. I thought that if child x sat next to an adult that he is more familiar with, he will be less disruptive in my lessons.
Therefore, I believed that rather than shouting at this child for being disruptive, my values and professional judgement assumed that it was beneficial for child x as well as the class if I remained calm and placed him with the teaching assistant. In addition, I had to consider the reasons as to why child x thought that it was necessary to distract his peers in the classroom: As confirmed by Tripp , these examples convey that teachers are challenged with a series of dilemmas and decisions that they must make based on personal theories and professional judgement , p.
Although I was faced with a number of challenges during my critical incident, it was crucial for me to make a decision based on my theoretical and moral judgement. To conclude, it is apparent that teachers are commonly confronted with critical incidents which consequently place them in a dilemma that is often dealt with based on professional and personal judgement.
As formerly outlined, the critical incident and dilemmas that I was faced with, allowed me to reflect, analyse and critique on my teaching practice. Consequently, I have found that reflective teaching has enabled me to think about the decisions that I have made and contemplate ways in which I can become a better and effective teacher. For my future placements, I aim to enforce the behaviour management strategies more rigidly. Moreover, I intend to be more of an assertive and effective teacher in the future.
I will analyse a range of relevant literature, national strategies and theories which will be used to critically evaluate the significant issues in relation to my teaching practice. Moreover, I intend to engage in a wider reading surrounding my critical incident in order to progress my professional development and to subsequently become a more effective teacher not only during my teaching practice, but throughout my teaching career.
In addition, this theorist points out that we can improve our professional development as a result of thinking critically. Nonetheless, the aforementioned theories have been challenged as Zeichner and Liston , suggest that reflective teaching can be considered as an idealised and unrealistic practice due to the high demands and heavy workload that teachers are confronted with on a daily basis.
They continue that teachers do not often have the time to critically reflect on their practice for the reason that the classroom environment is fast-paced and busy which can make it difficult for teachers to reflect. On the other hand, I believe that critical reflection is essential for practitioners. This is because as I continue to engage with a wider reading of critical reflective activity, I have gained a greater understanding of how to deal with complex situations more efficiently within the classroom.
My practice has enabled me to critically reflect on a variety of teaching styles that I adopted during my first placement. Adopting different teaching strategies has given me more confidence to develop my teaching practice and become more self-assured in some aspects of my teaching. Nonetheless, upon reflection of my first school placement, I found it quite difficult to deal with challenging behaviour whilst I was teaching. Pollard suggests that trainee teachers find it quite challenging to maintain discipline and order in the classroom, particularly if the children have established a relationship with their own teacher from the beginning of the year.
Subsequently, it is essential for me to explore behaviour management theories in order to reflect and consider ways to progress in my professional development and be able to effectively deal with challenging behaviour in the future. Moreover, throughout my placement, I found that my reflective journal has been a useful tool as it has enabled me to reflect on ways to develop my classroom practice and improve my professional development: I have been exposed to different teaching strategies and have witnessed various ways that the pupils respond to the staff which is useful for my professional development.
Ghaye conveys that reflective practice is a purposeful and meaningful activity because it reinforces us to gain better knowledge and understanding of our practice.
Moreover, although I was faced with many challenges throughout my first school placement, my reflective journal enabled me to consider reasons why I made the decisions that I chose to make during my critical incident. School X uses a staged approach which is recorded on a stage chart in each classroom from Years 3 to 6.
In their response to poor behaviour, this approach is variable, depending on the age of the pupil. The intended meaning may differ from the meaning attached to the message by the receiver. This is not only due to the words used but also by the non-verbal messages that are also sent Fielding, Heath argues that communication occurs in various ways and at diverse levels of awareness.
Barber , cited in Heath, states that communication is concerned with sharing understandings and involves openness to enquiring of another person, with the bearing of attention, perception, receptivity and empathy towards that person. Peplau , cited by Betts, , in Kenworthy et al, views nursing as an interpersonal process. Betts , cited in Kenworthy et al argues that effective communication is intricate and obscure.
Both the nurse and the patient are distinctive individuals, and they both bring with them their own perceptions, values, interpretations and experiences to the interpersonal process. Davies et al argue that nursing is moving away from the medical model, towards an individualized, holistic approach whereby the patient is taking a more active part in their care.
In order to achieve this the nurse must use effective communication skills. Before the critical incident is examined it is important to look at what a critical incident is and why it is important to nursing practice. Girot , in Maslin-Prothero, states that critical incidents are a means of exploring a certain situation in practice and recognizing what has been learned from the situation.
Benner , cited by Kacperek, argues that nurses cannot increase or develop their knowledge to its full potential unless they examine their own practice. Khan was admitted to the Adult Rehabilitation Ward.
The ward concerned was divided into three bays and three side rooms and Mrs. Khan was initially admitted into the bay the student worked in. Khan was an elderly lady from India who spoke no English.
Khan could not read her native language. Her native language was Punjabi. Her family assisted with her admission details, however after admission her family rarely visited.
Despite the language barrier, Mrs. Khan and the student developed a good rapport. The hospital link worker came to visit her and translated what Mrs. Khan wished to say to the student and vice versa.
During this time the student learned that Mrs. Khan had pain in her legs and that she had only recently lost her husband, which explained why Mrs. Khan was tearful at times. At the times when Mrs. Khan was tearful and the student did not know why, the student could only stroke her hand and her my arm around Mrs.
The student asked the link worker to explain how inadequate she felt that she did not know what Mrs. Khan was trying to tell her and to apologize for this, and that she wanted to help Mrs. The link worker informed the student that Mrs. Khan was grateful and Mrs. Following this the student always offered Mrs. Khan a smile and a wave to say hello and sometimes sat with her to give her some form of company.
Khan was admitted to the ward following a trip to India, with a cough. It was suspected on her admission that this cough was due to tuberculosis, however she was still admitted in the bay. Four days following admission, after settling into the bay, it was decided to take the suspected tuberculosis more seriously and to move her into the side room, into isolation, and take swabs to test for tuberculosis.
The staff nurse tried to contact the link worker to come and explain to Mrs. Khan why she needed to be moved, however the link worker was not there and a message was left to contact the ward. However, it was decided to move Mrs. Khan immediately rather than wait for the link worker to contact the ward. Two auxiliary nurses went to Mrs. Khan was left to wonder what was happening.
The student felt totally helpless because she could not communicate to Mrs. Khan what was happening and reassure her. By the time Mrs. Khan had been moved in to the room she was heartbroken, and all that the student could do was stroke her hand until the link worker finally arrived. Once the link worker arrived and the situation was explained to Mrs. Khan, she calmed down somewhat. However, the patient had been very upset because of the lack of communication and interpersonal skills that the staff and the student had displayed.
The literature regarding communication and interpersonal skills is vast and extensive. Upon reading a small amount of the vast literature available, the student was able to analyze the incident, and look at how badly this situation was handled.
However, although the student felt at the time that she did not communicate effectively due to the language barrier , it was found on reflection and reading the literature that she did do something positive. One method of non-verbal communication the student used to communicate with Mrs. Tutton , cited by Kacperek, asserts that touch is an essential part of nursing care and can have many possible benefits for patients.
Watson , cited in Heath, identified two types of touch used in nursing practice: Expressive touch was the intended use in the incident with Mrs. The student used this to try to convey her own feelings to Mrs. The student wanted to give Mrs. Khan some degree of comfort and communicate to Mrs.
Khan that she cared. The student also used touch to convey support, genuineness and empathy, which is essential for the helping relationship Betts, , cited in Kenworthy et al, Carl Rogers , cited by Betts, , in Kenworthy et al, recommended three principal conditions necessary for effective counseling: Kalisch , cited by Betts, , in Kenworthy et al, describes empathy as: Empathy is frequently perceived as the most significant element of the helping relationship Betts, , cited in Kenworthy et al, The terms genuineness and congruence are used interchangeably and used to describe the helper always being real in the helping relationship Betts, , cited in Kenworthy et al, Genuineness is important to the patient.
The third condition vital for effective counseling according to Rogers , cited by Betts, , in Kenworthy et al, was unconditional positive regard. This can be defined as accepting and caring for the patient without any conditions in place, that is to say accepting the patient for what they are, as a whole, no matter what Betts, in Kenworthy et al, As the student could not communicate verbally with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to use non-verbal communication that is to say touch to convey empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard.
The student also attempted to use other methods of non-verbal communication in order to implement these vital components to her relationship with Mrs. During the times that the student sat with Mrs. Khan, the student attempted to show she was listening to Mrs. Khan, even though the student did not understand Mrs.
The behaviour of the person listening to the person who is talking is important during the interpersonal process Unknown, ; Burnard, In order to use appropriate behaviour whilst Mrs. The SOLER acronym is an aid to identifying and remembering the behaviours that should be implemented in order to promote effective listening Burnard, The student S at facing Mrs.
Khan; she assumed an O pen posture; L eaned towards Mrs.
- The reason for this essay is to reflect on a critical incident experience during my six week placement as a student nurse on an orthopedic ward. To explore an event as a critical incident is a value judgment, and the basis of that judgment is the significance attached to the meaning of the incident.
The reason for this essay is to reflect on a critical incident experience during my six week placement as a student nurse on an orthopedic ward. To explore an event as a critical incident is a value judgment, and the basis of that judgment is the significance attached to the meaning of the incident.
essay is to reflect on a critical incident experience during my six week placement as a student nurse on an orthopedic ward. To explore an event as a critical incident is a value judgment, and the basis of that judgment is the significance attached to the . A critical incident is an incident which has prompted reflection of the actions undertaken by all involved and being critical of those actions in order to learn and improve practice (Perry, cited by Elliott ).
Assessment 1 Essay – Critical Incident Evaluation Newcastle Shipping Fatality Abstract On the 19th January , Malcolm Dennis Phillips drowned after the truck he was driving tumbled into Newcastle Harbour (Mulley ). The organisation Phillips worked for, Forgacs Engineering Pty Ltd, were subsequently fined after pleading guilty to . A Critical Incident Report. Report Summary and Rationale. The aim of this report is look at a critical incident that occurred in practice and relate this to the theory and knowledge regarding communication and interpersonal skills, that is to say, what skills were and were not used at the time of the incident.