This legal definition thus classified the crime of genocide in three distinct parts: The second part of the UN definition, intent, is controversial, as legal scholars point out that intent is typically difficult to prove and therefore hard to prosecute. The third element in the definition, racial, ethnic, or religious group victimization, makes genocide distinct from other kinds of murder and brutality. The first draft of the convention included political groups, but the USSR contested its inclusion and ultimately prevailed.
During the genocide in former Yugoslavia in the early s, the term ethnic cleansing entered into popular parlance, but it remains undefined in legal terms. For example, while often used to describe genocide, it may also involve mass deportation without mass murder.
Native Americans endured both ethnic cleansing and ethnocide during the 19th and 20th centuries. Ethnic cleansing policies forced native populations onto reservations, while white Americans seized millions of acres of their land. By the late 19th century, the federal government instituted a now-discontinued policy of forced assimilation, with the ultimate goal of eradicating native cultures and societies. Some scholars classify genocides in terms of their history and the reasons for such action.
Instrumental genocide refers to mass murder aimed at achieving specific goals, a motivation often associated with premodern genocides. Ideological genocide, on the other hand, refers to situations in which mass murder operates as an end in itself. It is often associated with more modern instances of genocide, including those based on religious or ethnic fundamentalism. As many scholars have noted, although the Nazis were not the first to engage in genocidal activity, the Holocaust was unprecedented in terms of its modern, distinctly nationalist and industrial character.
Much of the population was forced into labor camps or killed. Two examples of this are the Holocaust and the Rape of Nanking. These events in history serve a painful reminder of the cruelest depths of human nature, but also of the possibilities that lie within every catastrophe. Bystanders always play a key role in any event, whether they have a positive or negative effect on the outcome of the situation at hand.
Most, if not all, of the bystanders during the Rape of Nanking were western missionaries that happened to be in China at that time. Among them were doctors, a filmmaker, and even a Nazi. The filmmaker was a man named John Magee whose films have helped historians unlock some of the mysteries about that gruesome time.
He contacted Hitler and told him of the current atrocities in Nanking and asked for assistance in fighting the Japanese; assistance that was later denied.
All of the Westerners decided to take action in this situation by setting up the International Safety Zone, which harbored , Chinese refugees, in the center of Nanking. This assistance helped the people of Nanking to a phenomenal degree. On the contrary, the bystanders during the Holocaust did very little to help the victims. The bystanders during the Holocaust were mainly the Germans who lived in the surrounding areas of the concentration camps.
Most of these Germans had an idea of what was going on, yet they did nothing. They had an ignorant mindset; they did not want to know and they did not care. Due to this ignorance many war crimes and crimes against humanity were committed in both cases Horvath.
During the Rape of Nanking there were many war crimes and crimes against humanity that occurred. The Japanese soldiers gathered thousands of Chinese women and forced them to live in barracks while being raped on a daily basis. This extensive raping is considered a crime against humanity. There were many war crimes committed by the Japanese soldiers during the Rape of Nanking.
An interesting fact about the Japanese is that they were contemptuous of those who surrendered. They considered surrendering to be dishonorable and therefore felt as though it downgraded the surrendering Chinese soldiers to the level of animals.
Many more crimes were committed during these eight tragic weeks. The crimes that were committed during the Holocaust partially resemble the atrocities at Nanking. In the Holocaust people were also gathered and forced to live in barracks, but unlike Nanking they were killed for a reason. People were selected on the basis of race and religion; this is discrimination which is a crime against humanity.
The largest group of those unfortunately selected, was the Jews. They were killed in masses and tortured through experimentation.
Those who were barricaded in the death camps were deprived of food and proper hygiene which caused the spread of many diseases and eventually more deaths. The carnage that took place at both Nanking and during the Holocaust was due to the horrible crimes that were committed. One would hope that the offenders of these crimes would receive an equally harsh punishment Horvath.
At the conclusion of each event there was a war crime trial held. Only eight men were killed during this process. Some others spent a few years in jail and then were left to continue with their lives.
This essay, will discuss the history of the Cambodian genocide, specifically, what happened, the victims and the perpetrators and the world’s response to the genocide. The Cambodian Genocide has the historical context of .
Well the answer to that is simple. All of these genocides have occurred due to the failure of the international community. The quote "history always repeats itself" has upheld it's honesty. The fact that the international community continues to turn a blind eye to the matter, leads to the conclusion that genocide in the future is inevitable/5(9).
Genocide Essay Examples & Outline Are you in High School, College, Masters, Bachelors or Ph.D and need assistance with your research paper? All you need is to ask for . This is a sample essay (essay example) on Genocide. Remember, all free essays you can find publicly online are % plagiarized and can be used in instructional purposes only. Remember, all free essays you can find publicly online are % plagiarized and can be used in instructional purposes only.
Genocide Essay Raphael Lemkin (), a Jewish lawyer from Poland who wrote extensively about international law and crimes against humanity, coined the term genocide in his most famous work, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe, published in by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. The the genocide convention described genocide as the intentional and collective annihilation of a human group in its entirety based on its ethnic, religious, racial, or .