When the parties to conflict do not bring their emotions to the conflict, they are in a position to understand the real issues in the conflict and the conflict is resolved immediately. Workplace bullying can include such tactics as verbal, nonverbal, psychological, physical abuse and humiliation.
This type of aggression is particularly difficult because, unlike the typical forms of school bullying, workplace bullies often operate within the established rules and policies of their organization and their society. Bullying in the workplace is in the majority of cases reported as having been perpetrated by someone in authority over the target.
However, bullies can also be peers, and on occasion can be subordinates. Bullying can be covert or overt. It may be missed by superiors or known by many throughout the organization.
Negative effects are not limited to the targeted individuals, and may lead to a decline in employee morale and a change in company culture. Workplace bullying, can be seen as a continual purposeful behavior that sets bullying behavior apart from in-civil treatment Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, and Cooper, As these definitions above suggest along with the current literature, there are many different forms and characteristics which define workplace bullying.
Mikkelsen and Einarsen reported that experiences from workplace bullying can be compared to that of losing a love done due to an unexpected death. Workplace bullying can appear in many forms and characteristics. These forms and characteristics include Leymann, ; Koonin and Green, One suggestion proposed when narrowing the scope of characteristics, may be for researchers to collaborate and come to a concise consensus as to what forms and characteristics exactly identify the face of workplace bullying.
Gary and Ruth Namie, could work towards uniting forces with similar organizations, such as those in the United Kingdom. By establishing connections among organizations, this could potentially translate into a significant increase relating to awareness of workplace bullying and also further define what forms and characteristics exactly define workplace bullying.
One might look to contribute the rise and prevalence of workplace bullying could perhaps be linked to the aspect of competitiveness among the United States and Western workplace culture Duffy, Duffy ,believes the ideology centering on competition and being number one has spawned many overly competitive workplaces. According to Duffy , competitiveness as a trait has spawned further traits such as, ruthlessness in organizational workplaces.
Not only have these traits developed in organizational culture, but these traits are increasingly being swept into the values of organizations. Expanding on these newly forming traits and values embedded in organizations, further research could explore if bullying incidents have risen over the last number of years due to globalization and the financial crisis. Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan , offer that the prevalence of workplace bullying may exist due to when organizations restructure.
Organizational restructuring, will thus produce eminent threats of job loss and uncertainty among workers. Kearns, McCarthy, and Sheehan , further argue that organizational restructuring can foster workplace bullying due to the insecurities of employees, due to potential job losses. Van Heugten ,conducted a grounded survey into the impacts and interventions among social workers bullied in the workplace, and found that of the 17 social workers involved in the study 13 women and 4 men , organizations, were identified as the major culprit in permitting workplace bullying to rein supreme.
Psychological harassment is a heterogeneous phenomenon. Each bullying action shows a different frequency, has different determinant motivations e. The interaction of three types of antecedents phase 1 can develop psychological harassment behaviour phase 2 , which creates response from the victim and the organisation phase 3 , and produces three types of effects phase 4. But, it is also a unilinear process. For instance, the antecedents phase 1 can directly influence the responses phase 3 of an individual e.
For example, the personality of the victim can influence the nature of the individual response, or the culture of the firm can influence the characteristic of the organisational response. In the same way, the antecedents phase 1 can directly influence the effects phase 4. For instance, the personality of the victim can influence the psychological harassment health effects. In a series of longitudinal studies, it was shown that people can change their EI competencies over two to five years Boyatzis, Wong and Law working with different samples have found that, age is positively correlated with emotional intelligence across different job situations.
Kafetsios had reported in his study among adults aged between years, that older participants scored higher on three out of four branches of EI i. This study supports the view that emotional intelligence develops with age.
Srivastava and Bharamanaikar concluded from their study among the sample of Indian army officers regarding the relationship between EI and their age, that EI had increased with age. Van Rooy, Alonso and Viswesvaran have made a study in which a common measure of emotional intelligence was administered to participants.
Results indicated that emotional intelligence scores tended to increase with age. Similarly, Mohanty and Devi. Girls are more aware and understand their own feelings Components of EI than boys. Sanchez-Burks and Huy claimed that due to emotional contagion which is an automatic, non-conscious psychological process, people experiment shared thrills. In other words, interaction in the workplace causes spreading or transferring thrills from an individual to others Eriksson, Al-Karim Samnani destabilizes the functionalist approach by examining the workplace bullying literature through three alternative paradigms, namely, interpretivism, critical management theory, and postmodernism.
This provides an illustration of the different ways in which workplace bullying can be perceived, understood, and researched. Moreover, because alternative paradigmatic lenses draw upon varying theoretical and methodological approaches, paradigmatic analysis can offer a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the phenomenon.
The author uses these lenses to ground workplace bullying in paradigmatically driven theoretical frameworks, while using these theoretical frameworks to propose research questions that can direct us toward gaining a more composite body of scholarship. La Civita in the article said that many organizations have begun to understand the need to create cultures and climates that maximize the potential of people working in these organizations. The people will provide the creativity and initiative to be successful, especially in an environment that values all members and one that reduces abuse and ineffective human interactions.
By making emotional intelligence a priority, the implementation of human resource functions will allow organizations to show that they mean what they say when referring to employees as their most important asset. When there is zero tolerance for workplace bullying and there is a commitment to provide an environment that encourages, supports and reinforces the self-directed development process of emotional intelligence competencies, bullying can be stopped.
There is no place in the workplace for the personalization and conflict over disagreements and different points of view. Differences can stimulate learning and new solutions when they are considered with respect and contemplation. Bullying shuts down open discussion, creativity, innovation, and a sense of worth. Organizational leaders must recognize and stop this form of aggression. Di Martino, et al. However, several consequences of bullying may translate into an economic burden for society.
Absenteeism costs arising from long term illness, premature retirement on the grounds of ill health, long term unemployment and welfare dependency, premature and unplanned loss of productive employees thus depriving the workforce of skills and talents and affecting overall national productivity , economic burden for personal care is passed on to family and friends are examples of societal costs.
Hallberg and Strandmark explored the health consequences of workplace bullying with help of a core category labelled that they remaining marked for life. By this meant that adult bullying is perceived by its victim as a severe psychological trauma or a traumatic life event.
Joan Acker argues that workers, though seemingly gender neutral, are actually framed as inherently male. Those perceived as solely committed to paid employment historically, men are viewed by others as naturally more deserving of workplace responsibility and authority. Women, in contrast, still retain primary responsibility for childrearing, housework, and other familial responsibilities.
By this meant that adult bullying is perceived by its victims as a severe psychological trauma or a traumatic life event. The core category contained five additional categories; 1 feeling guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem, 2 developing symptoms and reactions, 3 getting limited space for action, 4 working through the course of events, and 5 trying to obtain redress. Bullying included the spreading of rumours and repeated insults aimed at changing the image of the bullied person negatively, resulting in feelings of guilt, shame and diminishing self-esteem in the exposed person.
Physical and psychosomatic symptoms gradually emerged developing symptoms and reactions and medical treatment and sick listing often follow. Vartia pointed out that everyone involved in the process of bullying in the workplace is negatively affected. Generalized self-efficacy seemed to work as a moderator between the exposure of bullying and mental health problems. Ms Hirigoyens book triggered a new collective awareness of the phenomenon of moral harassment at work.
Associations for combatting moral harassment were founded and moral harassment at work became an issue in public debate. It defined moral harassment as all repeated actions aimed at degrading the human, relational, or material working conditions of one or more victims, in such a way as to compromise their rights and dignity, potentially having a serious impact on their health and jeopardising their career prospects. Catharine MacKinnon was among the first to argue that sexual harassment should qualify as a form of sex discrimination by linking the phenomenon to gender inequality and patriarchy.
This summary will cover each measure separately, referring to the definition of Emotional Intelligence, reliability, validity, and intended population for each measure. Therefore, the rising testimony of this emotional side of work exhibits one of the fundamental motives of growth makes it worth looking into the concept of emotional intelligence EI.
Indeed, emotional intelligence plays a considerable role in the workplace. Within the past 30 years research investigating factors that contribute to success in workplace have resulted in distinguishing factors that are affiliated to workplace intelligence.
Ideally, employees with high emotional quotient EQ would be able to manage their personal and professional lives in a more balanced way than those employees having a low EQ. To test this, EQ and work-life would be measured of various employees using a standardized questionnaire. There is a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and bullying and harassment. There is no significant relationship between emotional intelligence and bullying and harassment. However, to start with, the research is exploratory in nature which ultimately gets converted into a descriptive research.
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Even though, some members performed weak results on their individual tasks, the leader of our group managed to incorporate others and complete their part more thoroughly.
Self-awareness is a great quality of a leader. It is a strong desire to understand and work with others in cooperative manner. Moreover, it is an ability to look for solutions rather than focus on a problem. In a workplace it is an essential quality of a true leader or a manager who has to work with people on a daily basis.
A self-aware leader knows how to create a cooperative atmosphere and emphasize an impact of each member. Emotional Intelligence Essay Emotional intelligence proved to be an important component in leadership. Self-Awareness and Personal Development.
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An essay about emotional intelligence, the phrase "emotional intelligence" was coined by Yale psychologist Peter Salovey.
Free emotional intelligence papers, essays, and research papers. Emotional Intelligence: Short Essay on Emotional Intelligence! Emotional intelligence is a new concept developed by Dr John Mayer and Dr Peter Salovey () from American University. However, it was popularised by American Psychologist Daniel Goleman (). Emotional intelligence is defined as “one’s ability to know, feel and .
Emotional Intelligence Essay Emotional intelligence refers to a combination of skills including, empathy, self-control, self-awareness, sensitivity, and self-motivation. There are many tests done to see if a person has a high emotional intelligence. Free Essays from Bartleby | EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE `ABSTRACT "Emotional Intelligence is a way of recognizing, understanding, and choosing how we think.