There is also a small group of newspapers which may be characterized as international newspapers. Some, such as The New York Times International Edition , formerly The International Herald Tribune have always had that focus, while others are repackaged national newspapers or "international editions" of national or large metropolitan newspapers.
In some cases, articles that might not interest the wider range of readers are omitted from international editions; in others, of interest to expatriates , significant national news is retained. As English became the international language of business and technology, many newspapers formerly published only in non-English languages have also developed English-language editions.
In places as varied as Jerusalem and Mumbai , newspapers are printed for a local and international English-speaking public, and for tourists. The advent of the Internet has also allowed non-English-language newspapers to put out a scaled-down English version to give their newspaper a global outreach. Similarly, in many countries with a large foreign-language-speaking population or many tourists, newspapers in languages other than the national language are both published locally and imported.
For example, newspapers and magazines from many countries, and locally published newspapers in many languages , are readily to be found on news-stands in central London. In the US state of Florida , so many tourists from the French-speaking Canadian province of Quebec visit for long stays during the winter " snowbirds " that some newsstands and stores sell French-language newspapers such as Le Droit.
General newspapers cover all topics, with different emphasis. While at least mentioning all topics, some might have good coverage of international events of importance; others might concentrate more on national or local entertainment or sports. Specialised newspapers might concentrate more specifically on, for example, financial matters.
There are publications covering exclusively sports, or certain sports, horse-racing, theatre, and so on, although they may no longer be called newspapers. For centuries newspapers were printed on paper and supplied physically to readers either by local distribution, or in some cases by mail, for example for British expatriates living in India or Hong Kong who subscribed to British newspapers.
Newspaper organizations need a large distribution system to deliver their papers to these different distributors, which typically involves delivery trucks and delivery people. In recent years, newspapers and other media have adapted to the changing technology environment by starting to offer online editions to cater to the needs of the public. In the future, the trend towards more electronic delivery of the news will continue with more emphasis on the Internet, social media and other electronic delivery methods.
However, while the method of delivery is changing, the newspaper and the industry still has a niche in the world. As of , virtually all major printed newspapers have online editions distributed over the Internet which, depending on the country may be regulated by journalism organizations such as the Press Complaints Commission in the UK.
A new trend in newspaper publishing is the introduction of personalization through on-demand printing technologies or with online news aggregator websites like Google news.
Customized newspapers allow the reader to create their individual newspaper through the selection of individual pages from multiple publications. This "Best of" approach allows revival of the print-based model and opens up a new distribution channel to increase coverage beneath the usual boundaries of distribution. With these online newspapers, the reader can select how much of each section politics, sports, arts, etc. In the United States, the overall manager or chief executive of the newspaper is the publisher.
Although he or she rarely or perhaps never writes stories, the publisher is legally responsible for the contents of the entire newspaper and also runs the business, including hiring editors, reporters, and other staff members. This title is less common outside the U. The equivalent position in the film industry and television news shows is the executive producer.
Throughout the English-speaking world, the person who selects the content for the newspaper is usually referred to as the editor. Variations on this title such as editor-in-chief, executive editor, and so on are common.
For small newspapers, a single editor may be responsible for all content areas. At large newspapers, the most senior editor is in overall charge of the publication, while less senior editors may each focus on one subject area, such as local news or sports.
These divisions are called news bureaus or "desks", and each is supervised by a designated editor. Most newspaper editors copy edit the stories for their part of the newspaper, but they may share their workload with proofreaders and fact checkers.
Reporters are journalists who primarily report facts that they have gathered and those who write longer, less news-oriented articles may be called feature writers. Photographers and graphic artists provide images and illustrations to support articles. Journalists often specialize in a subject area, called a beat , such as sports, religion, or science. Columnists are journalists who write regular articles recounting their personal opinions and experiences.
Printers and press operators physically print the newspaper. Printing is outsourced by many newspapers, partly because of the cost of an offset web press the most common kind of press used to print newspapers and also because a small newspaper's print run might require less than an hour of operation, meaning that if the newspaper had its own press it would sit idle most of the time.
If the newspaper offers information online, webmasters and web designers may be employed to upload stories to the newspaper's website. The staff of the circulation department liaise with retailers who sell the newspaper; sell subscriptions; and supervise distribution of the printed newspapers through the mail, by newspaper carriers , at retailers, and through vending machines.
Free newspapers do not sell subscriptions, but they still have a circulation department responsible for distributing the newspapers. Sales staff in the advertising department not only sell ad space to clients such as local businesses, but also help clients design and plan their advertising campaigns. Other members of the advertising department may include graphic designers , who design ads according to the customers' specifications and the department's policies.
In an advertising-free newspaper , there is no advertising department. Newspapers often refine distribution of ads and news through zoning and editioning. Zoning occurs when advertising and editorial content change to reflect the location to which the product is delivered. The editorial content often may change merely to reflect changes in advertising—the quantity and layout of which affects the space available for editorial—or may contain region-specific news.
In rare instances, the advertising may not change from one zone to another, but there will be different region-specific editorial content. As the content can vary widely, zoned editions are often produced in parallel. Editioning occurs in the main sections as news is updated throughout the night. The advertising is usually the same in each edition with the exception of zoned regionals, in which it is often the 'B' section of local news that undergoes advertising changes.
As each edition represents the latest news available for the next press run, these editions are produced linearly, with one completed edition being copied and updated for the next edition. The previous edition is always copied to maintain a Newspaper of Record and to fall back on if a quick correction is needed for the press. For example, both The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal offer a regional edition, printed through a local contractor, and featuring locale specific content.
The Journal's global advertising rate card provides a good example of editioning. See also Los Angeles Times suburban sections. Most modern newspapers  are in one of three sizes:. Newspapers are usually printed on cheap, off-white paper known as newsprint.
Since the s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality, four-color process , offset printing. In addition, desktop computers, word processing software , graphics software , digital cameras and digital prepress and typesetting technologies have revolutionized the newspaper production process.
These technologies have enabled newspapers to publish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design. To help their titles stand out on newsstands, some newspapers are printed on coloured newsprint. For example, the Financial Times is printed on a distinctive salmon pink paper, and Sheffield 's weekly sports publication derives its name, the Green 'Un , from the traditional colour of its paper.
Both the latter promoted major cycling races and their newsprint colours were reflected in the colours of the jerseys used to denote the race leader; for example the leader in the Giro d'Italia wears a pink jersey. The number of copies distributed, either on an average day or on particular days typically Sunday , is called the newspaper's circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not necessarily the same as copies sold, since some copies or newspapers are distributed without cost.
Readership figures may be higher than circulation figures because many copies are read by more than one person, although this is offset by the number of copies distributed but not read especially for those distributed free. In the United States, the Alliance for Audited Media maintains historical and current data on average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals.
According to the Guinness Book of Records , the daily circulation of the Soviet newspaper Trud exceeded 21,, in , while the Soviet weekly Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,, in Germany's Bild , with a circulation of 3. In the United Kingdom, The Sun is the top seller, with around 3.
While paid readership of print newspapers has been steadily declining in the developed OECD nations, it has been rising in the chief developing nations Brazil, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa , whose paid daily circulation exceeded those of the developed nations for the first time in According to the Indian Readership Survey, the Dainik Jagran is the most-read, local-language Hindi newspaper, with A common measure of a newspaper's health is market penetration, expressed as a percentage of households that receive a copy of the newspaper against the total number of households in the paper's market area.
In the s, on a national basis in the U. As other media began to compete with newspapers, and as printing became easier and less expensive giving rise to a greater diversity of publications, market penetration began to decline. It wasn't until the early s, however, that market penetration dipped below percent.
By , it was 53 percent and still falling. For example, someone might want only a Sunday paper, or perhaps only Sunday and Saturday, or maybe only a workweek subscription, or perhaps a daily subscription. Most newspapers provide some or all of their content on the Internet, either at no cost or for a fee. In some cases, free access is available only for a matter of days or weeks, or for a certain number of viewed articles, after which readers must register and provide personal data.
In other cases, free archives are provided. The business model of having advertising subsidize the cost of printing and distributing newspapers and, it is always hoped, the making of a profit rather than having subscribers cover the full cost was first done, it seems, in by The Sun , a daily paper that was published in New York City.
Rather than charging 6 cents per copy, the price of a typical New York daily at the time, they charged 1-cent, and depended on advertising to make up the difference. Newspapers in countries with easy access to the web have been hurt by the decline of many traditional advertisers. Department stores and supermarkets could be relied upon in the past to buy pages of newspaper advertisements, but due to industry consolidation are much less likely to do so now.
The classified category is shifting to sites including Craigslist , employment websites, and auto sites. National advertisers are shifting to many types of digital content including websites, rich media platforms, and mobile. In recent years, the advertorial emerged. Advertorials are most commonly recognized as an opposite-editorial which third parties pay a fee to have included in the paper. Advertorials commonly advertise new products or techniques, such as a new design for golf equipment, a new form of laser surgery, or weight-loss drugs.
The tone is usually closer to that of a press release than of an objective news story. Such articles are often clearly distinguished from editorial content through either the design and layout of the page or with a label declaring the article as an advertisement. However, there has been growing concern over the blurring of the line between editorial and advertorial content. Since newspapers began as a journal record of current events , the profession involved in the making of newspapers began to be called journalism.
In the yellow journalism era of the 19th century, many newspapers in the United States relied on sensational stories that were meant to anger or excite the public, rather than to inform. The restrained style of reporting that relies on fact checking and accuracy regained popularity around World War II.
Criticism of journalism is varied and sometimes vehement. Credibility is questioned because of anonymous sources; errors in facts, spelling, and grammar; real or perceived bias ; and scandals involving plagiarism and fabrication. In the past, newspapers have often been owned by so-called press barons , and were used for gaining a political voice. Newspapers have, in the modern world, played an important role in the exercise of freedom of expression. Whistle-blowers, and those who "leak" stories of corruption in political circles often choose to inform newspapers before other mediums of communication, relying on the perceived willingness of newspaper editors to expose the secrets and lies of those who would rather cover them.
However, there have been many circumstances of the political autonomy of newspapers being curtailed. Recent research has examined the effects of a newspaper's closing on the reelection of incumbents, voter turnout, and campaign spending. Opinions of other writers and readers are expressed in the op-ed "opposite the editorial page" and letters to the editors sections of the paper.
Some ways newspapers have tried to improve their credibility are: By the late s, the availability of news via hour television channels and then the availability of online journalism posed an ongoing challenge to the business model of most newspapers in developed countries.
Paid circulation has declined, while advertising revenue—which makes up the bulk of most newspapers' income—has been shifting from print to the new media social media websites and news websites , resulting in a general decline in print newspapers' revenues and profits.
Many newspapers around the world launched online editions in the s, in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their audience. One of the big challenges is that a number of online news websites, such as Google news , are free to access.
Some online news sites are free, and rely on online advertising; other online news sites have a paywall and require paid subscription for access. However, in the non-developed countries, cheaper printing and distribution, increased literacy, the growing middle class and other factors have more than compensated for the emergence of electronic media and newspapers continue to grow.
On 10 April , The American Reporter became the first daily Internet-based newspaper, with its own paid reporters around the world and all-original content. The editor-in-chief and founder is Joe Shea. The site is owned by journalists. In the late s the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen—especially in the United States, where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since The debate has become more urgent lately, as the recession shaved newspapers' profits, and as once-explosive growth in newspaper web revenues has leveled off, forestalling what the industry hoped would become an important source of revenue.
As of , an increasing percentage of Millennials young adults get their news from social media websites such as Facebook. In the s, many traditional newspapers have begun offering "digital editions", which can be accessed via desktop computer , laptops , and mobile devices such as tablet computers and smartphones. Online newspapers may offer new advertising opportunities to newspaper companies, as online advertising enables much more precise targeting of ads; with an online newspaper, for example, different readers, such as Baby boomers and Millennials can be sent different advertisements.
At the same time, then as the printing press in the physical technological sense was invented, 'the press' in the extended sense of the word also entered the historical stage. The phenomenon of publishing was now born. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Journalism v t e. History of newspaper publishing. List of the earliest newspapers and Newspaper production process. History of British newspapers. History of American newspapers.
Print media in India , Japanese newspapers , and History of Chinese newspapers. History of Middle Eastern newspapers. List of national newspapers. List of newspapers in the World by circulation , Newspaper circulation , and Ageing of newspaper readership.
A student guide to journalism and the newspaper business'' " PDF. Retrieved 21 May The New York Times. Retrieved 21 February The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. University of California Press. Archived from the original on 11 January Information and Politics in the Seventeenth Century. Cambridge University Press , If Trump slaps tariffs on more Chinese goods, U.
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