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Who was John Adams?

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❶John Adams was a vice president of the United States.

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Clay's American System called for high tariffs , federally-funded internal improvements , and a national bank , all of which were supported by Adams. Adams and Clay met prior to the contingent election, and Clay agreed to support Adams. In February Adams won the contingent election, taking thirteen of the twenty-four state delegations.

After the election, many of Jackson's supporters claimed that Adams and Clay had reached a " Corrupt Bargain " in which Adams promised Clay the position of Secretary of State in return for Clay's support. Adams was inaugurated on March 4, He took the oath of office on a book of constitutional law , instead of the more traditional Bible. He also proposed an elaborate program of "internal improvements": Though some worried about the constitutionality of such federal projects, Adams argued that the General Welfare Clause provided for broad constitutional authority.

While his predecessors had engaged in projects like the building of the National Road , Adams promised that he would ask Congress to authorize many more such projects. Adams nominated John J. Crittenden to replace Trimble, but the Senate never voted on Crittenden's nomination.

In his annual message to Congress, Adams presented a comprehensive and ambitious agenda. He called for major investments in internal improvements as well as the creation of a national university, a naval academy, and a national astronomical observatory.

Noting the healthy status of the treasury and the possibility for more revenue via land sales, Adams argued for the completion of several projects that were in various stages of construction or planning, including a road from Washington to New Orleans. Many disagreed with his broad interpretation of the constitution, and favored stronger state governments at the expense of the federal government.

Others disliked any government interference and were opposed to central planning. Some of his proposals were adopted, specifically the extension of the Cumberland Road into Ohio with surveys for its continuation west to St. After signing the tariff, Adams was denounced in the South, but received little credit for the tariff in the North.

Adams sought the gradual assimilation of Native Americans via consensual agreements, a priority shared by few whites in the s. Yet Adams was also deeply committed to the westward expansion of the United States. Settlers on the frontier, who were constantly seeking to move westward, cried for a more expansionist policy that disregarded the concerns of a supposedly inferior civilization.

Troup refused to accept its terms, and authorized all Georgian citizens to evict the Muskogee. A third treaty was signed in , giving all of the Muskogee land to Georgia. According to Charles Edel, Adams believed that, "Intervention would accomplish little, retard the cause of republicanism, and distract the country from its primary goal of continental expansion. During his term as president, Adams achieved little of long-term consequence in foreign affairs.

A reason for this was the opposition he faced in Congress, where his rivals prevented him from succeeding. However, thanks to the successes of Adams's diplomacy during his previous eight years as secretary of state, most of the foreign policy issues he would have faced had been resolved by the time he became president.

As president, Adams continued to pursue the peaceful settlement of potential disputes with Britain, including the unsettled border between Maine and Canada. However, in , Britain banned U. Adams favored sending a U. Adams sought closer ties with the new Latin American states, believing that stability among the new states would benefit the U.

During his presidency, Adams's opponents coalesced around Jackson. Opponents accused Adams of favoring big government, the Northeast, manufacturing, and abolition. Followers of Jackson, Van Buren, and Calhoun formed a proto-party apparatus, raising large sums of money and sponsoring newspapers and local clubs. In the spring of , Jackson was publicly accused of having encouraged his wife to desert her first husband.

This represented the first time in U. The key states in the election were New York, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, which accounted for nearly a third of the country's electoral votes. He also won a majority of the electoral votes in New York, and denied Adams a sweep of New England by winning an electoral vote in Maine. In total, Jackson won of the electoral votes and just under 56 percent of the popular vote.

No future presidential candidate would match Jackson's proportion of the popular vote until Theodore Roosevelt exceeded it in Adams's loss made him the second one-term president, after his own father.

John Quincy Adams left office on March 4, Adams did not attend the inauguration of his successor, Andrew Jackson, who had openly snubbed him by refusing to pay the traditional "courtesy call" to the outgoing president during the weeks before his own inauguration.

Adams considered permanently retiring from public life after his defeat, and he was deeply hurt by the suicide of his son, George Washington Adams , in He was elected to nine terms, serving as a Representative for 17 years, from until his death.

Returning to Washington at the age of sixty-four, Adams expected a light workload, but Speaker Andrew Stevenson selected Adams chairman of the Committee on Commerce and Manufactures.

Shortly after Adams entered Congress, the Nullification Crisis threatened civil war over the Tariff of Clay and Adams offered an amendment moderating the tariff, and defused the crisis. Congress also passed the Force Bill which authorized President Andrew Jackson to use military force if Adams's compromise bill did not force the belligerent states to capitulate. There was no need, however, because Adams's compromise remedied the matter. The compromise actually did not alter the tariff as much as the southern states had hoped, though they agreed not to continue pursuing the issue for fear of civil war.

Adams ran for Governor of Massachusetts in on the Anti-Masonic ticket. Allen of the Working Men's Party. Because no candidate had won a majority, the election was decided by the state legislature. Adams withdrew and endorsed Davis, preferring him over Morton, and Davis was chosen in January Adams opposed the annexation of Texas , viewing as unconstitutional the imposition of U.

Polk signed the Oregon Treaty , which divided the land between the two claimants at the 49th parallel. A longtime opponent of slavery, Adams used his new role in Congress to fight it, and he became the most prominent national leader opposing slavery.

The discussion of this Missouri question has betrayed the secret of their souls. In the abstract they admit that slavery is an evil, they disclaim it, and cast it all upon the shoulder of…Great Britain.

But when probed to the quick upon it, they show at the bottom of their souls pride and vainglory in their condition of masterdom.

They look down upon the simplicity of a Yankee's manners, because he has no habits of overbearing like theirs and cannot treat negroes like dogs. It is among the evils of slavery that it taints the very sources of moral principle. It establishes false estimates of virtue and vice: In , partially in response to Adams' consistent presentation of citizen petitions requesting the abolition of slavery in the District of Columbia , Southern Representatives voted in a " gag rule " that immediately tabled any petitions about slavery.

Adams became a forceful opponent of this rule and conceived a way around it, attacking slavery in the House for two weeks. It was a petition from a Georgia citizen urging disunion due to the continuation of slavery in the South.

Though he certainly did not support it and made that clear at the time, his intent was to antagonize the pro-slavery faction of Congress into an open fight on the matter. They moved for his censure over the matter, enabling Adams to discuss slavery openly during his subsequent defense.

Taking advantage of his right to defend himself, Adams delivered prepared and impromptu remarks against slavery and in favor of abolition. He decided that if he were censured, he would merely resign, run for the office again, and probably win easily. Adams made sure this did not happen, and the debate continued. He attacked slavery and slaveholders as immoral, and condemned the institution while calling for it to end.

He delighted in the misery he was inflicting on the slaveholders he so hated, and prided himself on being "obnoxious to the slave faction. Adams went before the Supreme Court on behalf of African slaves who had revolted and seized the Spanish ship Amistad. Adams appeared on 24 February , and spoke for four hours. His argument succeeded; the Court ruled in favor of the Africans, who were declared free and returned to their homes.

In the following years, the Spanish government continued to press the US for compensation for the ship and its cargo, including the slaves. Several southern lawmakers introduced Congressional resolutions to appropriate money for such payment, but none passed, despite support from Democratic presidents James K.

Polk and James Buchanan. Adams continued to speak against what he called the " Slave Power ", that is the organized political power of the slave owners who dominated all the southern states and their representation in Congress.

Douglas , who he accused of catering to the slave faction in exchange for southern support. Adams also became a leading force for the promotion of science. As president, he had proposed a national observatory, which did not win much support. In British scientist James Smithson died, and left his fortune for the "increase and diffusion of knowledge.

Adams realized that this might allow the United States to realize his dream of building a national institution of science and learning. Adams thus became Congress's primary supporter of the future Smithsonian Institution. The money was invested in shaky state bonds, which quickly defaulted. After heated debate in Congress, Adams successfully argued to restore the lost funds with interest. Sources contend that in Adams sat for the earliest confirmed photograph still in existence of a U.

In , the year-old former president suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed. After a few months of rest, he made a full recovery and resumed his duties in Congress. When Adams entered the House chamber, everyone "stood up and applauded. Army officers who served in the Mexican—American War. Adams had been a vehement critic of the war, and as Congressmen rose up to say, "Aye! His last words were "This is the last of earth.

First term Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois was assigned to the committee making the funeral arrangements. His original interment was temporary, in the public vault at the Congressional Cemetery in Washington, D. Later, he was interred in the family burial ground in Quincy, Massachusetts, across from the First Parish Church, called Hancock Cemetery.

After Louisa's death in , his son Charles Francis Adams had his parents reinterred in the expanded family crypt in the United First Parish Church across the street, next to John and Abigail.

Both tombs are viewable by the public. Adams's original tomb at Hancock Cemetery is still there and marked simply "J. Adams and Louisa had three sons and a daughter. Their daughter, Louisa, was born in but died in while the family was in Russia. This decision upset Adams's mother, and, by her account, his father as well.

Adams's youngest son, Charles Francis Adams who named his own son John Quincy , pursued a career in diplomacy and politics. In Charles Francis built the first presidential library in the United States, to honor his father. The Stone Library includes over 14, books written in twelve languages.

Bush — and George W. It has been suggested that John Quincy Adams had the highest I. Adams's personality was much like that of his father, as were his political beliefs. Historian Paul Nagel states that, like Abraham Lincoln after him, Adams often suffered from depression, for which he sought some form of treatment in early years. Adams thought his depression was due to the high expectations demanded of him by his father and mother.

Throughout his life he felt inadequate and socially awkward because of his depression, and was constantly bothered by his physical appearance. When he was younger and the American Revolution was going on, his mother told her children what their father was doing, and what he was risking, and because of this Adams grew to greatly respect his father.

Though he later described his presidency as the unhappiest time of his life, [5] scholars rate John Quincy Adams in the second quartile in the majority of historical presidential rankings. Historians have often included Adams among the leading conservatives of his day. Adams House , one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University, is named in honor of John Adams, John Quincy Adams, and other members of the Adams family who were associated with Harvard.

He was the first president to adopt a short haircut instead of long hair tied in a queue and to regularly wear long trousers instead of knee breeches. Adams occasionally is featured in the mass media. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 13 September For other uses, see JQA disambiguation. United States presidential election, Presidency of John Quincy Adams.

John Quincy Adams and abolitionism. John Quincy Adams portal. Though not accurate, this pronunciation is also commonly used for Adams's middle name. The Raising of a President. From Colony to Superpower: Foreign Relations Since Retrieved November 1, Retrieved October 30, The Golden Age of the Classics in America: Greece Rome and the Antebellum United States.

Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 1, The White House Historical Assoc.

Retrieved December 5, Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects. Memoir of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Crosby, Nichols, Lee and Co.

Retrieved November 16, Retrieved August 26, Houghton, Mifflin and Co. New England Historical Society. Retrieved March 9, Henry Clay the Lawyer. University Press of Kentucky. Retrieved March 15, Diary of Charles Francis Adams: November — June The Lost Founding Father: Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World. Retrieved 13 November Richards, The slave power: Retrieved February 21, The White House Historical Association. Retrieved September 4, Retrieved March 18, Retrieved February 8, A discourse occasioned by the death of John Quincy Adams.

Published by Bela Marsh , 25 Cornhill. Retrieved August 2, How Did They Die? Ark of the liberties: America and the world. Pohl and John R. Retrieved 11 July Adams Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society. Retrieved September 15, Retrieved September 16, Estimates and Correlations for 42 U. Ideas and Personalities Throughout American History. Shame and Glory of the Intellectuals. John Quincy Adams Society. Retrieved October 26, The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Louisa Catherine Adams in Russia".

Bemis, Samuel Flagg []. Bemis, Samuel Flagg John Quincy Adams and the Union. The Presidency of John Quincy Adams. Howe, Daniel Walker What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, — Miller, William Lee Four Generations of the John Adams Family.

A Public Life, a Private Life. The Birth of Modern Politics: From "Outrageous Federalist" to "Republican Exile," ". Journal of the Early Republic. Bibliography of John Quincy Adams. Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. Corrupt Bargain or the Birth of Modern Politics? New England Journal of History. Parsons, Lynn Hudson A Reference History 3rd ed. Heir to the Fathers: Adams, Charles Francis , ed.

Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: Comprising Portions of His Diary from to Adams, John Quincy — Ford, Worthington C , ed. Writings of John Quincy Adams. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Founders Online, searchable edition.

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September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Find more about John Quincy Adams at Wikipedia's sister projects. Secretary of State, — U. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, — 1st U. Minister to Prussia, — U. Ambassador to the Netherlands, — Postage stamps Monroe Doctrine Centennial half dollar. Profiles in Courage book television series The Adams Chronicles miniseries Mutiny on the Amistad book Amistad film John Adams book miniseries. Louisa Adams wife George W.

Adams son Charles Adams Sr. Articles related to John Quincy Adams. Presidents of the United States. Grant — Rutherford B. Hayes — James A.

Garfield Chester A. Roosevelt — Harry S. Truman — Dwight D. Eisenhower — John F. Kennedy — Lyndon B. After his presidency, Adams had a long and productive retirement. He and his wife lived in Quincy, Massachusetts, and the former president spent the next quarter-century writing columns, books and letters. In , he was encouraged to begin exchanging letters with his old rival Thomas Jefferson, and their voluminous correspondence lasted the rest of their lives.

By that point, the elder Adams and Jefferson were among the last living signers of the Declaration of Independence. What he did not know was that earlier that morning Jefferson, too, had passed away. Start your free trial today.

We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Samuel Adams was a Boston-born political leader who played a vital role in moving colonial America to its decisive break with Britain during the American Revolution.

American Revolution leader John Hancock was a signer of the Declaration of Independence in and a governor of Massachusetts. The colonial Massachusetts native was raised by his uncle, a wealthy Boston merchant. When his uncle died, Hancock inherited his lucrative John Quincy Adams began his diplomatic career as the U.

After serving in the Massachusetts State Senate and the U. Although most familiar as the He was a gifted orator and major figure in the American Revolution. His rousing speeches — which included a speech to the Virginia legislature in which he famously Abigail Adams was one of only two women to have been both wife and mother to two U.

Skirmishes between British troops and colonial After the judgment and loyalty of Silas Deane is called into question, Congress appoints John Adams to succeed Deane as the commissioner to France on this day in Deane had been recalled to America by Congress after fellow diplomat Arthur Lee accused him of misappropriating This website uses cookies for analytics, personalization, and advertising.

Click here to learn more or change your cookie settings. By continuing to browse, you agree to our use of cookies. The President Faces Tensions Abroad Adams took office in March , and his presidency was quickly taken up with foreign affairs. A Tireless Writer After his presidency, Adams had a long and productive retirement.

Thomas Jefferson Meets John Adams. Samuel Adams Samuel Adams was a Boston-born political leader who played a vital role in moving colonial America to its decisive break with Britain during the American Revolution.

John Hancock American Revolution leader John Hancock was a signer of the Declaration of Independence in and a governor of Massachusetts.


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John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] – July 4, ) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (–) and second President of the United States (–).

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John Adams, a remarkable political philosopher, served as the second President of the United States (), after serving as the first Vice President under President George Washington.

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Feb 04,  · John Adams. Find out about John Adams' political career in the newly formed United States, from his vice presidency under George Washington to his . John Adams served one presidential term from March 3 to March 3. This was the 3rd presidential term ever served, as George Washington served the first 2.

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But he was a one-term president, having entered office under the cloud of a shady bargain involving the electoral college. He died of a stroke while serving in Congress, in the same room as the young Abraham Lincoln who, unfortunately, had never the time to know and learn from him. a. John Adams () 2nd president of the United States. John Adams Fast Facts Second President of the United States. Share Flipboard Email Print Portrait of John Adams, Second President of the United States. Oil by Charles Wilson Peale, Independence National Historical Park 1 Term. First Lady: Abigail Smith. John Adams Quote.