This report concentrates on the fourth stage, the formal operational stage. Furthermore, to enhance the learning of the subject it was found that the NSW geography curriculum has the potential with appropriate teacher stimulus to adequately provide for the student, although literacy could be focused upon. The pendulum task asks a person to figure out the variable that makes the pendulum swing faster, that is, increase the frequency.
Berger in review of Pieget , states that these stages are age related, in that children generally reach each stage within a particular age range in sequence. As a child enters into each stage they develop new ways of knowing and understanding new ways of gathering intelligence as defined by the boundaries of that stage.
Piaget, J that will be looked at. For example, a major research topic was whether or not the development of cognition could be accelerated. Adey and Shayer, found that cognitive development could be accelerated and that the effects could be long term Adey and Shayer, , pp. Furthermore, Adey and Shayer cite work by Hallam, and Jurd who found the notion of concrete the third stage and formal operations can be applied to history, and that Fusco found that it could be fully applied in the context of English comprehension and social studies Adey, Shayer, , pp.
In addition, Flavell cited in Gleitman, , p. Thus, this report through the use of the pendulum task will aim to: Method Participant There was only one person studied for the purpose of this report.
The subject was male. He was 12 years and 4 months old. The subject was born in China in moved to Australia when he was 2. The subject speaks a Chinese language at home and English would be classed as the subjects second language. The subject is in year 7 at school and attends a school in the Sydney metropolitan area. He is not from a disadvantaged background.
The subject was nervous before the task but settled down reasonably quickly. Informed consent was asked from the mother of the subject, a consent form was signed. At this stage confidentiality was ensured to both the mother and the subject and the reasons for the research were explained. A pendulum was made out of varying lengths of string and different weights. A frame supported the pendulum. There were 3 different sizes and lengths of weights and strings. The height and the force at which the pendulum could be released could also be varied by the subject.
A pen, paper and stop-watch was provided to the subject. A video camera was placed a few meters away from the pendulum to record the procedure.
The subject was asked to use the pendulum to find out what makes it swing faster, that is swing more times in a shorter space of time. The subject was told that they could use the different lengths of string or different weights and could use the pen, paper and watch.
The subject then proceeds to go on with the experiment until they are happy with their results. Perhaps the most fundamental aspect of the analysis was that the subject already knew the answer to the problem, for example: Then proceeded to use the same weight but the middle length string and then the shortest string, recording the results and time each swing see table below.
The subject was asked if he had learnt that at school and he was not sure. From analysis of these results it can be seen that the subject had some prior knowledge. Due to this he used logically experimentation through the use of isolating the variable to the length of string to determine whether he was right or not. The subject did not want to check the other variable of weight or height as he was sure it was length of string. In relation to whether the development was in sequence as Flavell cited in Gleitman, , p.
Furthermore, the experiment being greatly influenced by the fact that the subject already thought he new the answer to the problem when the task was initiated opens up ideas on accelerated cognitive development and the debate between Piaget and his theories and the social and instructional theorists.
For example, Siegler, Liebert and Liebert found that concrete operational attributes could be taught to younger adolescences. Thus, the subject being of boarder-line age could have had his cognitive development accelerated during primary school either intentionally or unintentionally, this would be unknown.
This raises the question of whether the curriculum today has been developed with these issues in mind. As such, further studies with the same task with a larger sample could answer these issues. Perkins, Jay and Tishman cited in Adey put it down to psychological disposition, the tendency to behave in a certain way, that what matters is a person tendency invest themselves energetically in areas that cause development, that question the person.
This psychological disposition could be inherited or could be developed through ways described in Vygotsky theories. That is through mentors, guidance and structure. Thus, it could be seen that the level of cognitive development obtained could be said to have been obtained through a process of development as described by Piaget in combination with a social process as described by Vygotsky and a simple learning process as described by Adey The NSW junior geography curriculum contains specified geography skills, tools and values that enable the teacher to integrate a range of teaching strategies that would enhance all areas of cognitive development, whether it be restrained to areas focused on by Piaget , that Berger discusses or a broader range of areas as discussed by Vygotsky.
As such, in suggesting that the subject is well catered for in these areas, the one area in which the subject may need help is literacy, in voicing his opinions. He believed that children develop through the different stages depending on their own personal experiences. In other words, Piaget believed that children are scientists, whereas Vygotsky believed that they are apprentice. He believed that we must assist children in their learning so that they can learn effectively.
Based on the previous readings of this textbook, a conclusion can be drawn that Piaget took a nature approach whereas Vygotsky had a nurture approach. Information processing is broken up by mental hardware and mental software Kail, , p. Both Piaget and information processing theorists believe that children learn on their own. Likewise, all three theories support that as children develop, their understanding becomes more complex. If we compare and contrast these three theories, we grasp a deeper understanding of what these theories mean.
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Cognitive development — Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information processing.
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This free Psychology essay on Essay: Cognitive development - Piaget, Vygotsky, and Information processing is perfect for Psychology students to use as an example. Jean Pieget holds that, development precedes learning that is, it is activated by cognitive problems. All in all, Jean Piaget’s contribution was a milestone in the fields of both the natural and social sciences.
There are four stages of cognitive development outline by Jean Piaget. He emphasize that the way children reason at one stage is different from the way they reason at another stage. The first stage, is called the sensorimotor . Free Essay: Cognitive Development From a newborn baby to an eleven year old child, cognitive development is affected by both inherited genes (nature) and.