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❶Delete "interpretation" or "discussion" sections that are only peripherally related to your new results or observations.

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Information to allow the reader to assess the believability of your results. Information needed by another researcher to replicate your experiment. Description of your materials, procedure, theory. Calculations, technique, procedure, equipment, and calibration plots. Limitations, assumptions, and range of validity. Desciption of your analystical methods, including reference to any specialized statistical software. The methods section should answering the following questions and caveats: Could one accurately replicate the study for example, all of the optional and adjustable parameters on any sensors or instruments that were used to acquire the data?

Could another researcher accurately find and reoccupy the sampling stations or track lines? Is there enough information provided about any instruments used so that a functionally equivalent instrument could be used to repeat the experiment? If the data are in the public domain, could another researcher lay his or her hands on the identical data set? Could one replicate any laboratory analyses that were used?

Could one replicate any statistical analyses? Could another researcher approximately replicate the key algorithms of any computer software? Citations in this section should be limited to data sources and references of where to find more complete descriptions of procedures.

Do not include descriptions of results. Results The results are actual statements of observations, including statistics, tables and graphs. Indicate information on range of variation. Mention negative results as well as positive. Do not interpret results - save that for the discussion. Lay out the case as for a jury. Present sufficient details so that others can draw their own inferences and construct their own explanations.

Break up your results into logical segments by using subheadings Key results should be stated in clear sentences at the beginning of paragraphs.

Describe the nature of the findings; do not just tell the reader whether or not they are significant. Writing for an Audience Who is your audience? Researchers working in analogous field areas elsewhere in the world i. Researchers working in your field area, but with different techniques. Researchers working on the same interval of geologic time elsewhere in the world.

All other researchers using the same technique you have used. If your study encompasses an active process, researchers working on the same process in the ancient record. Conversely, if your study is based on the rock record, people studying modem analogs. People writing a synthesis paper on important new developments in your field. People applying earth science to societal problems i. Potential reviewers of your manuscript or your thesis committee.

Planning Ahead for Your Thesis. Writing for an Audience. Writing for an International Audience. Abstract A good abstract explains in one line why the paper is important.

It then goes on to give a summary of your major results, preferably couched in numbers with error limits. The final sentences explain the major implications of your work. A good abstract is concise, readable, and quantitative. Absrtracts generally do not have citations. Information in title should not be repeated. Use numbers where appropriate. Answers to these questions should be found in the abstract: What did you do?

Why did you do it? What question were you trying to answer? How did you do it? What did you learn? Why does it matter? Point out at least one significant implication. Table of Contents list all headings and subheadings with page numbers indent subheadings it will look something like this: How do you do this? Physical separation into different sections or paragraphs.

Don't overlay interpretation on top of data in figures. Careful use of phrases such as "We infer that ". Don't worry if "results" seem short. Easier for your reader to absorb, frequent shifts of mental mode not required. Ensures that your work will endure in spite of shifting paradigms. Discussion Start with a few sentences that summarize the most important results. The discussion section should be a brief essay in itself, answering the following questions and caveats: What are the major patterns in the observations?

Refer to spatial and temporal variations. What are the relationships, trends and generalizations among the results? What are the exceptions to these patterns or generalizations? What are the likely causes mechanisms underlying these patterns resulting predictions? Is there agreement or disagreement with previous work? Interpret results in terms of background laid out in the introduction - what is the relationship of the present results to the original question?

What is the implication of the present results for other unanswered questions in earth sciences, ecology, environmental policy, etc? There are usually several possible explanations for results. Be careful to consider all of these rather than simply pushing your favorite one.

If you can eliminate all but one, that is great, but often that is not possible with the data in hand. In that case you should give even treatment to the remaining possibilities, and try to indicate ways in which future work may lead to their discrimination.

A special case of the above. Avoid jumping a currently fashionable point of view unless your results really do strongly support them. What are the things we now know or understand that we didn't know or understand before the present work? Include the evidence or line of reasoning supporting each interpretation. What is the significance of the present results: Be as clear and as specific as possible; avoid vague words.

Are there two large statements connected loosely by a coordinating conjunction i. Would a subordinating conjunction help i.

Or do the two statements imply a fuzzy unfocused thesis? If so, settle on one single focus and then proceed with further development. Is your thesis statement too general? Compare this original thesis too general with three possible revisions more focused, each presenting a different approach to the same topic: There are serious objections to today's horror movies.

Because modern cinematic techniques have allowed filmmakers to get more graphic, horror flicks have desensitized young American viewers to violence. The pornographic violence in "bloodbath" slasher movies degrades both men and women. Today's slasher movies fail to deliver the emotional catharsis that s horror films did. Is your thesis statement clear? In order to be as clear as possible in your writing: Unless you're writing a technical report, avoid technical language.

Always avoid jargon, unless you are confident your audience will be familiar with it. Compare the original thesis not specific and clear enough with the revised version much more specific and clear: Although the timber wolf is a timid and gentle animal, it is being systematically exterminated. Although the timber wolf is actually a timid and gentle animal, it is being systematically exterminated because people wrongfully believe it to be a fierce and cold-blooded killer.

Does your thesis include a comment about your position on the issue at hand? Avoid merely announcing the topic; your original and specific "angle" should be clear. In this way you will tell your reader why your take on the issue matters.

In this paper, I will discuss the relationship between fairy tales and early childhood. Not just empty stories for kids, fairy tales shed light on the psychology of young children.

We must save the whales. Because our planet's health may depend upon biological diversity, we should save the whales. When you make a subjective judgment call, specify and justify your reasoning. Socialism is the best form of government for Kenya. The professional thesis has to be written without any grammatical or spelling errors.

Its writing style must be brisk, lucid, and readable. The success of thesis writers depends on his or her ability to produce a thesis that can create interest in the readers. Thesis writing is now a lucrative profession. There are many professional writers who write thesis for all kinds of students. However, when you hire a thesis writer, make sure that he or she is a good writer and is able to write original and informative thesis.

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Thesis Statement Model #2: Thesis with Concession. Notice that this model makes a concession by addressing an argument from the opposing viewpoint first, and then uses the phrase "even though" and states the writer's opinion/main idea as a rebuttal.

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Thesis writing is now a lucrative profession. There are many professional writers who write thesis for all kinds of students. However, when you hire a thesis writer, make sure that he or she is a good writer and is able to write original and informative thesis.

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Thesis writing services can go anywhere from editing and revisions to writing your entire paper from scratch, and anywhere in between. If you are a graduate program student who is in need of dissertation writing services, then it is time to consider enlisting the help of professional writers. This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft. Introduction. Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of .

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You can click on the example button in each section to see an example of a thesis statement. Question: Write the the question you have been assigned or the prompt you are going to . Thesis Proposal. Whenever you start writing any thesis, the major part of this paper is obviously proposal. Such part needs the maximum attention of the writer because this thesis proposal represents the overall idea, which is related to the thesis.