Crime cuts across many disciplines such as sociology, psychology and criminology. Each of these disciplines try to explain why crime is committed and how people are compelled to commit crime, a good example is sociology. Sociology attributes crime due to poor socialization in society, while psychology attributes crime mainly due to biological and Pathological criminogenic behaviors. Many scholars have tried to define crime and each has given many reasons why crime is committed.
Scholars such Cesare Lombroso attribute crime to biological anomalies while scholars like Edwin Sutherland claim that criminal behavior is learned. Generally all these come, to the same conclusions that crime is an offence punishable by law. There are two main types of crime, these include violent crimes and property crime. Both violent and property crimes are offences which involve force and damage to society. There are different types of punishing crime, the most common typologies are retribution, restorative justice, general and specific deterrence, rehabilitation and just deserts.
Crime punishment has been there since the beginning of time, theoldesttype of punishment was retribution. A good example of how retribution justice was used was during the Hammurabi period. In those days if crime was committed it constituted an eye for an eye. If I killed someone my punishment would be death. No one was spared. Justice was viewed differently. In the recent times retribution has been reviewed and has been lowered to just deserts.
The punishment is still harsh but considers many factors at hand, such as the state of mindof the offender. Crime has been there for a long time and has been defined and been punished in different ways. What constitutes a crime has also been reviewed. A good example is freedom of worship.
Many people were not allowed to worship any other gods and did it secrecy due to fear of prosecution and being labeled a heretic. In present times one is allowed to worship any god and believe in whoever they please. Generallycrime is a wide topic and has been vigorously studied in different aspects butin this essay I am going to focus mainly on the major objectives of crime prevention, typologies of crime reduction, law enforcement and crime, recidivism of crime and interventions on reduction of crime.
Crime reduction is quite similar to crime prevention, for crime reduction to occur we need to prevent it at first. Crime prevention strategies are usually implemented by criminal justice agencies, individuals, businesses and non-governmental agencies in order to maintain order and enforce the law.
Crime prevention strategies not only deter crime but also reduce the risk of increasing victimization in the society. Crime prevention has many objectives but the most main objective is to reduce and deter crime. Many criminal justice agencies have developed strategies through public policy in order to prevent crime. Various models have been adopted by countries in order to combat crime. Kenya for example has enforced the Nyumbakumi initiative community policing spear headed by Kaguthi in order to combat crime.
By this strategy neighbors are supposed to be readily aw e and watchful of what happens in the neighborhood in order to deter criminals from committing crimes.
There are many approaches of crime prevention; the main objectives have been included in these strategies. These strategies are situational crime prevention strategy, environmental crime prevention, social crime prevention, developmental crime prevention, policing strategies, and community crime prevention strategies.
The environmental prevention strategy was first introduced by C. Ray Jeffery a criminologist. Environmental crime prevention strategy main objective is to protect the environment which entails wildlife, Nature and the atmosphere.
Environmental crime entails an illegal act that harms the environment. Many international bodies such as Interpol and the UN have recognized environmental crime due to the havoc it has causedthe environment, Types of environmental crime may include dumping hazardous waste in the ocean, illegal wild life trade of endangered species, smuggling, emitting chemicals those ozone layer and illegal logging of trees.
There many crimes associated with environmental crime but I am going to focus on the two main which affect many countries which is illegal trade of wildlife and logging of tress. Many counties have been trying to fight this crime. Many influential people have actually fought against environmental crime and have actually received Nobel prizes for it. The late Wangari Maathai who was an activist for the environment was highly against illegal logging of trees.
In fact she proposed that for every tree that was cut down, three should beplanted. Prevention strategies have been implemented in order to combat crime. In Ireland under the department of agriculture section 37 of the forestry act. It is illegal to uproot any tree over ten years old or cut down any tree of any age agriculture, Illegal wildlife trade is also a major problem. Kenya has had this problem for years, being one of the countries that harbors endangered species such as the white rhino and elephants.
It has faced a lot of problems in trying to combat this problem. Many poachers are killing these animals and selling the tusks of these animals for high prices. Elephant poaching was made illegal in , and hunting without a permit in Kenya has roughened sentencing through increasing fines. Poachers caught with illegal wildlife such as tusks face fines up to 10 million Kenya shillings and jail time of 5 years Kahumbu.
Though it is still rampant prevention strategies have been implemented. One is to have stiffer punishment for all criminals. With early parole, many criminals are only serving part of their sentences, and then going back out on the streets.
This negates the purpose of prison. If a criminal is given a five-year sentence, he should serve five years and not be allowed out ahead of time for so-called good behavior. A prisoner's good behavior in prison should not matter. After all, it was his bad behavior that got him in prison in the first place.
Criminals shoudl also be given lengthier prison terms, and in the case of murder, should have to face the possibility of the death penalty. With no chance of early release, longer prison terms, and the death penalty, potential criminals might think twice about committing a crime.
Another solution is to increase the size of the police force and other law enforcement agencies. The local, state, and federal governments should spend more on police forces. With a larger police force, the community would feel a greater sense of security, and possible law breakers might not commit a crime because of the increased fear of being caught.
Last, teaching teenagers and younger children the consequences of committing a crime and the dead-end life that goes with it would prevent some future ciminals from ruining their lives. By having police officers coming into schools and talk to kids, as well as taking children to jails to see what happens when they turn to crime, children may see that crime does not pay.
The results of this solution might now be evidenced quickly, but time would show its success. They are only precariously civilized and deep within them there is the propensity, persistent as the force of gravity to revert to our first natures.
Small wonder that under stress and strain the most civilized people are as near barbarism as the most polished steel is to rust.
Nations, like metals have only a superficial brilliancy. Compared with our wonderful progress in physical service and practical applications, our system of government, of administering justice of national education, and our whole social and moral organization, remains in a state of barbarism. The wealth and knowledge and culture of the few do not constitute civilization. Shaw has castigated our superficial civilization in words bitter but true. Crime and violence are inherent in our political and social system.
But the time comes when it is asserted that poverty is man-made and stems from the inequity of the wicked system that obtains. The covert crime begets the overt crime. The biggest of all crimes that we associate with this civilization is the horror of war. War today is murder on a gigantic scale. At one time it was thought a few hundred corpses would be enough; then came a time when thousands were still too few and today we cannot even count all the dead wherever we look.
And the irony is that this large-scale killing, this organized butchery is eulogized in glowing terms, and Victoria Crosses are awarded.
- This essay discusses Sutherland’s concept of white collar crime in the light of whether it is still appropriate in the 21st century. It is worth noting that white collar crime is often perceived as a less serious crime in the society.
The barbarian was a beast, with beastly appetites. He was a tiger, an ape, a camel, a goat in turn, whatever suited the occasion. After all it was a struggle for survival, for him. He acted like an automaton. There was no consciousness of crime. The modern civilized man perpetrates crime deliberately.
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