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Isaac newton research paper keshav

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Beyond the Big Bang: Albert Einstein

This immense foot-high 4. Isaac Newton's most comprehensive work on the temple, found within The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended , was published posthumously in , only adding to the public interest in the temple.

Newton considered himself to be one of a select group of individuals who were specially chosen by God for the task of understanding Biblical scripture. In this manuscript he details the necessary requirements for what he considered to be the proper interpretation of the Bible. In addition, Newton would spend much of his life seeking and revealing what could be considered a Bible Code. He placed a great deal of emphasis upon the interpretation of the Book of Revelation , writing generously upon this book and authoring several manuscripts detailing his interpretations.

Unlike a prophet in the true sense of the word, Newton relied upon existing Scripture to prophesy for him, believing his interpretations would set the record straight in the face of what he considered to be "so little understood". Although Newton's approach to these studies could not be considered a scientific approach, he did write as if his findings were the result of evidence-based research.

In late February and early March , a large amount of media attention circulated around the globe regarding largely unknown and unpublished documents, evidently written by Isaac Newton, indicating that he believed the world would end no earlier than The story garnered vast amounts of public interest and found its way onto the front page of several widely distributed newspapers, including the UK's Daily Telegraph , Canada's National Post , Israel's Maariv and Yediot Aharonot , and was also featured in an article in the scientific journal Canadian Journal of History.

The two documents detailing this prediction are currently housed within the Jewish National and University Library in Jerusalem. These documents do not appear to have been written with the intention of publication and Newton expressed a strong personal dislike for individuals who provided specific dates for the Apocalypse purely for sensational value. Furthermore, he at no time provides a specific date for the end of the world in either of these documents. To understand the reasoning behind the prediction, an understanding of Newton's theological beliefs should be taken into account, particularly his apparent antitrinitarian beliefs and his Protestant views on the Papacy.

Both of these lay essential to his calculations, which ultimately would provide the time frame. See Isaac Newton's religious views for more details.

The first document, part of the Yahuda collection, [23] is a small letter slip, on the back of which is written haphazardly in Newton's hand:. The prophetick days did not commence before the rise of the little horn of the He Goat. Therefore the years do not end before ye year nor after The second reference to the prediction can be found in a folio, [24] in which Newton writes:.

And the days of short lived Beasts being put for the years of lived [sic for "long lived"] kingdoms, the period of days, if dated from the complete conquest of the three kings A.

It may end later, but I see no reason for its ending sooner. Clearly Newton's mathematical prediction of the end of the world is one derived from his interpretation of not only scripture, but also one based upon his theological viewpoint regarding specific chronological dates and events as he saw them. Newton may not have been referring to the post event as a destructive act resulting in the annihilation of the globe and its inhabitants, but rather one in which he believed the world, as he saw it, was to be replaced with a new one based upon a transition to an era of divinely inspired peace.

In a separate manuscript, [25] Isaac Newton paraphrases Revelation 21 and 22 and relates the post events by writing:. New Jerusalem comes down from heaven prepared as a Bride adorned for her husband. For Newton's view of according to his contemporaries, see Religious views of Isaac Newton. Isaac Newton wrote extensively upon the historical topic of chronology.

In The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended , an approximately 87, word composition that details the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms was published. The publication date of this work occurred after his death, although the majority of it had been reviewed for publication by Newton himself shortly before he died.

As such, this work represents one of his last known personally reviewed publications. Sometime around he also produced a thirty page unpublished treatise entitled "The Original of Monarchies" detailing the rise of several monarchs throughout antiquity and tracing them back to the biblical figure of Noah. Newton's chronological writing is Eurocentric , with the earliest records focusing upon Greece , Anatolia , Egypt , and the Levant.

Many of Newton's dates do not correlate with current historical knowledge. While Newton mentions several pre-historical events found within the Bible, the oldest actual historical date he provides is BC. In this entry he mentions Mephres , a ruler over Upper Egypt from the territories of Syene to Heliopolis , and his successor Misphragmuthosis. Although some of the dates Newton provides for various events are accurate by 17th century standards, archaeology as a form of modern science did not exist in Newton's time.

In fact, the majority of the conclusionary dates which Newton cites are based on the works of Herodotus , Pliny , Plutarch , Homer , and various other classical historians, authors, and poets; themselves often citing secondary sources and oral records of uncertain date. Newton's approach to chronology was focused upon gathering historical information from various sources found throughout antiquity and cataloguing them according to their appropriate date by his contemporary understanding, standards, and available source material.

Found within The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended , are several passages that directly mention the land of Atlantis. The first such passage is part of his Short Chronicle which indicates his belief that Homer's Ulysses left the island of Ogygia in BC. In Greek mythology , Ogygia was home to Calypso , the daughter of Atlas after whom Atlantis was named. Some scholars have suggested that Ogygia and Atlantis are locationally connected, or possibly the same island.

From his writings it appears Newton may have shared this belief. Newton also lists Cadis or Cales as possible candidates for Ogygia, though does not cite his reasons for believing so. Isaac Newton has often been associated with various secret societies and fraternal orders throughout history. Due to the secretive nature of such organizations, lack of supportive publicized material, and dubious motives for claiming Newton's participation in these groups, it is difficult to establish his actual membership in any specific organization.

Regardless of his own membership status, Newton was a known associate of many individuals who themselves have often been labeled as members of various esoteric groups. It is unclear if these associations were a result of his being a well established and prominently publicized scholar, an early member and sitting President of The Royal Society — , a prominent figure of State and Master of the Mint , a recognized Knight , or if Newton actually sought active membership within these esoteric organizations himself.

Considering the nature and legality of alchemical practices during his lifetime, as well as his possession of various materials and manuscripts pertaining to alchemical research, Newton may very well have been a member of a group of like minded thinkers and colleagues.

The organized level of this group if in fact any existed , the level of their secrecy, as well as the depth of Newton's involvement within them, remains unclear. Although Newton was largely considered a reclusive personality and not prone to socializing, during his lifetime being a member of "Societies" or "Clubs" was a very popular form of interpersonal networking. Considering his esteemed social status, it is probable that Newton would have had a least some contact with such groups at various levels.

He was most certainly a member of The Royal Society of London for the Improvement of Natural Knowledge and the Spalding Gentlemen's Society , [28] [29] however, these are considered learned societies , not esoteric societies. Newton's membership status within any particular secret society remains verifiably allusive and largely speculative, however, it still lends itself to popular sensationalism. Perhaps the movement which most influenced Isaac Newton was Rosicrucianism. However, the Rosicrucian movement still would have a profound influence upon Newton, particularly in regard to his alchemical work and philosophical thought.

The Rosicrucian belief in being specially chosen for the ability to communicate with angels or spirits is echoed in Newton's prophetic beliefs.

Additionally, the Rosicrucians proclaimed to have the ability to live forever through the use of the elixir vitae and the ability to produce limitless amounts of time and gold from the use of the philosopher's stone , which they claimed to have in their possession. Like Newton, the Rosicrucians were deeply religious, avowedly Christian, anti-Catholic, and highly politicised. Isaac Newton would have a deep interest in not just their alchemical pursuits, but also their belief in esoteric truths of the ancient past and the belief in enlightened individuals with the ability to gain insight into nature, the physical universe, and the spiritual realm.

At the time of his death, Isaac Newton had books on the topic of alchemy in his personal library, and was believed to have considerably more books on this topic during his Cambridge years, though he may have sold them before moving to London in For its time, his was considered one of the finest alchemical libraries in the world.

Newton also possessed copies of Themis Aurea and Symbola Aurea Mensae Duodecium by the learned alchemist Michael Maier , both of which are significant early books about the Rosicrucian movement. These books were also extensively annotated by Newton.

Newton's ownership of these materials by no means denotes membership within any early Rosicrucian order. Furthermore, considering that his personal alchemical investigations were focused upon discovering materials which the Rosicrucians professed to already be in possession of long before he was born, would seem to some to exclude Newton from their membership. However, in religious terms, the fact that a saint might have 'found God' would not preclude others from the search — quite the opposite.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences. University of Chicago Press. Cambridge University Press, , The Chymistry of Isaac Newton Project.

Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 12 August Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 28 May Isaac Newton and the Holy Temple". Their son became the second earl and the manuscripts were passed down succeeding generations of the family. In the fifth earl passed all the Newton manuscripts he had to the University of Cambridge, where they were assessed and a detailed catalogue made. Based on this catalogue, the earl generously presented all the mathematical and scientific manuscripts to the University, and it is these that form the Library's 'Portsmouth collection' MSS Add.

The remainder of the Newton papers, many concerned with alchemy, theology and chronology, were returned to Lord Portsmouth. They were sold at auction at Sotheby's in London in and purchased by other libraries and individuals. In Cambridge University Library acquired a very important collection of scientific manuscripts from the Earl of Macclesfield, which included a significant number of Isaac Newton's letters and other papers.

A number of videos explaining aspects of Newton's work and manuscripts are available from the Newton Project's YouTube site , a selection of which are presented alongside our manuscripts. International students Continuing education Executive and professional education Courses in education. Newton Papers Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my greatest friend is truth. Under the leadership of Dr Leonard Polonsky and as part of its International Digitisation Project, The Polonsky Foundation has provided major funding towards the development of the digital library's infrastructure and the digitisation of the Newton Papers.

This project has enabled the linking of Newton's facsimiles and transcriptions. Includes content from The Royal Society. By continuing to use the site you agree to the use of cookies.

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